252333841282174800018177602021FY13627887255543090.681.801P1Y03322XBRL-Only Content SectionEXPLANATORY NOTESmartKem, Inc. (the "Company") hereby amends its Annual Report on Form 10-K for the fiscal year ended December 31, 2021, filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission (the "SEC") on March 28, 2022 (the "Original Annual Report"), as set forth in this Amendment No. 1 on Form 10-K/A (the "Form 10-K/A" or "Amended Annual Report"), to restate its financial statements and related disclosures as of and for the fiscal year ended December 31, 2021.Restatement BackgroundThe Company has determined that it made an error in the presentation and accounting of its consolidated statement of cash flows in the Company's annual and interim consolidated financial statements during 2021 and 2022. The management of the company has assessed its accounting policies as well as the presentation and accounting for the gain and loss on foreign currency and has concluded that it was necessary to restate its previously issued financial statements for the correction of this error related to incorrect classification of gain and loss on foreign currency in effect of exchange rate changes on cash instead of including such non-cash unrealized gains and losses in cash flows from operating activities. The effect of this error was to overstate net cash used in operating activities and effect of exchange rate changes on cash by $808 thousand for the year ended December 31, 2021, respectively. The errors and the required restatement had no effect on the Company's cash flows from investing activities, financing activities, net changes in cash or cash and cash equivalents as of December 31, 2021 and had no impact on the Company's consolidated balance sheet, the Company's consolidated statements of operations and comprehensive loss and stockholders' equity as of and for the year ended December 31, 2021.This Amended Annual Report sets forth the Original Annual Report, as modified and superseded where necessary to reflect the restatement and the related internal control considerations. Accordingly, the following items included in the Original Annual Report, as appropriate, to reflect the restatement of the relevant periods have been amended:Part I, Item 1A, Risk FactorsPart II, Item 7, Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of OperationsPart II, Item 8, Financial Statements and Supplementary DataPart II, Item 9A, Controls and ProceduresPart IV, Item 15, Exhibits and Financial Statement SchedulesIn accordance with Rule 12b-15 under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, or the Exchange Act, the Company is also including with this Amended Annual Report currently dated certifications of the Company's Chief Executive Officer and Principal Financial Officer (attached as Exhibits 31.1, 31.2, 32.1 and 32.2). Except as discussed above and as further described in Note 1 in the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements, the Company has not modified or updated disclosures presented in this Amended Annual Report. Accordingly, the Amended Annual Report does not reflect events occurring after the Original Annual Report or modify or update those disclosures affected by subsequent events. Information not affected by the restatement is unchanged and reflects disclosures made at the time of the filing of the Original Annual Report.As a result of the restatement, the Company has concluded there was a material weakness in its internal control over financial reporting as of December 31, 2021, and its disclosure controls and procedures were not effective. See additional discussion included in Part II, Item 9A of this Amended Annual Report. The Company has amended its previously filed Annual Report on Form 10-K and Quarterly Reports on Form 10-Q for the periods affected by the restatement. Other financial information that has been previously filed or otherwise reported for these periods is superseded by the information in this Amended Annual Report and in the amendments to our Quarterly Reports on Form 10-Q for the periods ended September 30, 2021 and March 31, 2022 (including comparative information for March 31, 2021, with comparatives for June 30, 2021 restated in our Form 10-Q for the period ended June 30, 2022) filed on the date hereof, and the financial statements and related financial information contained in such previously filed reports should no longer be relied 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Table of Contents

UNITED STATES

SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION

Washington, D.C. 20549

FORM 10-K/A

Amendment No. 1

(Mark One)

ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES
EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

For the fiscal year ended December 31, 2021

or

TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES
EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

For the transition period from                      to                     

Commission File Number: 000-56181

SmartKem, Inc.

(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)

Delaware

    

85-1083654

(State or other jurisdiction of

(I.R.S. Employer

incorporation or organization)

Identification Number)

Manchester Technology Centre, Hexagon Tower.

Delaunays Road, Blackley

Manchester, M9 8GQ U.K.

(Address of Principal Executive Offices)

Registrant’s telephone number +44 161 721 1514

Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act: None

Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act:

Common stock, par value $0.0001 per share

Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act. Yes  No 

Indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Act. Yes  No 

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days.  Yes    No  

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit such files).  Yes    No  

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, a smaller reporting company, or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer”, “accelerated filer”, “smaller reporting company”, and “emerging growth company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.

Large accelerated filer

Accelerated filer

Non-accelerated filer

Smaller reporting company

Emerging growth company

If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act.  

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has filed a report on and attestation to its managements assessment of the effectiveness of its internal control over financial reporting under Section 404(b) of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act (15 U.S.C. 7262(b)) by the registered public accounting firm that prepared or issued its audit report.

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act).  Yes    No  

As of June 30, 2021, the last business day of the registrant’s most recently completed second fiscal quarter, there was no public market for the registrant’s common stock. Accordingly, the aggregate market value of the voting and non-voting common equity held by non-affiliates of the registrant computed by reference to the price of the registrant’s Common Stock as of the registrant’s most recently completed second fiscal quarter cannot be determined.

As of March 14, 2022, there were 26,566,809 of the registrant’s shares of common stock outstanding.

DOCUMENTS INCORPORATED BY REFERENCE

None

Table of Contents

EXPLANATORY NOTE

SmartKem, Inc. (the "Company") hereby amends its Annual Report on Form 10-K for the fiscal year ended December 31, 2021, filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission (the "SEC") on March 28, 2022 (the "Original Annual Report"), as set forth in this Amendment No. 1 on Form 10-K/A (the "Form 10-K/A" or "Amended Annual Report"), to restate its financial statements and related disclosures as of and for the fiscal year ended December 31, 2021.

Restatement Background

The Company has determined that it made an error in the presentation and accounting of its consolidated statement of cash flows in the Company’s annual and interim consolidated financial statements during 2021 and 2022. The management of the company has assessed its accounting policies as well as the presentation and accounting for the gain and loss on foreign currency and has concluded that it was necessary to restate its previously issued financial statements for the correction of this error related to incorrect classification of gain and loss on foreign currency in effect of exchange rate changes on cash instead of including such non-cash unrealized gains and losses in cash flows from operating activities. The effect of this error was to overstate net cash used in operating activities and effect of exchange rate changes on cash by $808 thousand for the year ended December 31, 2021, respectively. The errors and the required restatement had no effect on the Company’s cash flows from investing activities, financing activities, net changes in cash or cash and cash equivalents as of December 31, 2021 and had no impact on the Company’s consolidated balance sheet, the Company’s consolidated statements of operations and comprehensive loss and stockholders’ equity as of and for the year ended December 31, 2021.

This Amended Annual Report sets forth the Original Annual Report, as modified and superseded where necessary to reflect the restatement and the related internal control considerations. Accordingly, the following items included in the Original Annual Report, as appropriate, to reflect the restatement of the relevant periods have been amended:

Part I, Item 1A, Risk Factors
Part II, Item 7, Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations
Part II, Item 8, Financial Statements and Supplementary Data
Part II, Item 9A, Controls and Procedures
Part IV, Item 15, Exhibits and Financial Statement Schedules

In accordance with Rule 12b-15 under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, or the Exchange Act, the Company is also including with this Amended Annual Report currently dated certifications of the Company's Chief Executive Officer and Principal Financial Officer (attached as Exhibits 31.1, 31.2, 32.1 and 32.2). Except as discussed above and as further described in Note 1 in the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements, the Company has not modified or updated disclosures presented in this Amended Annual Report. Accordingly, the Amended Annual Report does not reflect events occurring after the Original Annual Report or modify or update those disclosures affected by subsequent events. Information not affected by the restatement is unchanged and reflects disclosures made at the time of the filing of the Original Annual Report.

As a result of the restatement, the Company has concluded there was a material weakness in its internal control over financial reporting as of December 31, 2021, and its disclosure controls and procedures were not effective. See additional discussion included in Part II, Item 9A of this Amended Annual Report.

The Company has amended its previously filed Annual Report on Form 10-K and Quarterly Reports on Form 10-Q for the periods affected by the restatement. Other financial information that has been previously filed or otherwise reported for these periods is superseded by the information in this Amended Annual Report and in the amendments to our Quarterly Reports on Form 10-Q for the periods ended September 30, 2021 and March 31, 2022 (including comparative information for March 31, 2021, with comparatives for June 30, 2021 restated in our Form 10-Q for the period ended June 30, 2022) filed on the date hereof, and the financial statements and related financial information contained in such previously filed reports should no longer be relied upon.

Table of Contents

SmartKem, Inc.

SmartKem, Inc.

Form 10-K/A for the Fiscal Year Ended December 31, 2021

Table of Contents

Page

Glossary of Terms and Abbreviations

3

Cautionary Note On Forward-Looking Statements

5

PART I

Item 1.

Business

7

Item 1A.

Risk Factors (as restated)

16

Item 1B.

Unresolved Staff Comments

33

Item 2.

Properties

33

Item 3.

Legal Proceedings

34

Item 4.

Mine Safety Disclosures

34

PART II

Item 5.

Market For Registrant’s Common Equity, Related Stockholder Matters And Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities

34

Item 6.

[Reserved]

34

Item 7.

Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations (as restated)

35

Item 7A.

Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures about Market Risk

46

Item 8.

Financial Statements and Supplementary Data (as restated)

47

Item 9.

Changes in and Disagreements with Accountants on Accounting and Financial Disclosure

79

Item 9A.

Controls and Procedures (as restated)

79

Item 9B

Other Information

81

Item 9C.

Disclosure Regarding Foreign Jurisdictions that Prevent Inspections

81

PART III

Item 10.

Directors, Executive Officers and Corporate Governance

81

Item 11.

Executive Compensation

86

Item 12.

Security Ownership of Certain Beneficial Owners and Management and Related Stockholder Matters

89

Item 13.

Certain Relationships and Related Transactions, and Director Independence

91

Item 14.

Principal Accountant Fees and Services

95

PART IV

Item 15.

Exhibits and Financial Statement Schedules

96

Item 16.

Form 10-K/A Summary

100

Signatures

101

2

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Glossary of Terms and Abbreviations

 

The following is a glossary of technical terms used in this Report:

 

10˄6 – 1,000,000 (the symbol before the number 6 indicates “raised to the power”)

AMOLED – Active Matrix OLED

a-Si – Amorphous silicon (TFT)

 

BKM – Best-Known Method

 

BL – Base Layer

 

°C – Degrees Celsius

 

CoA – Certificate of Analysis

 

COC – Cyclic Olefin Copolymer

 

CPI – Centre for Process Innovation

 

EDA – Electronic Design Automation

 

FET – Field-Effect Transistor

 

IC – Integrated Circuit

 

IV – Current-Voltage

 

LTPS – Low-Temperature Polysilicon TFT (Note: Low-Temperature is relative to silicon wafer processing temperatures >300°C, however not low temperature relative to the glass transition temperature of many plastics (<150°C)

 

OGI – Organic Gate Insulator

 

OLED – Organic Light Emitting Diode 

 

OSC – Organic Semiconductor

 

OTFT – Organic Thin-Film Transistor

 

PDK – Process Design Kit

PEN - PolyEthylene Naphthalate

 

PET - PolyEthylene Terephthalate

 

PI - Polyimide

 

POR – Process of Record

 

PV – PassiVation layer

3

Table of Contents

 

SAM – Self-Assembled Monolayer

 

SRL – Sputter Resistant Layer

 

TAC - Cellulose TriACetate

 

Tg – Glass transition temperature

 

TFT – Thin-Film Transistor

 

Vth – Threshold Voltage

 

Vto – Turn-on Voltage

4

Table of Contents

CAUTIONARY NOTE ON FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS

This Amended Annual Report on Form 10-K/A, including the sections entitled “Risk Factors” and “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations,” contains express or implied forward-looking statements that are based on our management’s belief and assumptions and on information currently available to our management. Although we believe that the expectations reflected in forward-looking statements are reasonable, such statements involve known and unknown risks, uncertainties and other factors that may cause our actual results, performance or achievements to be materially different from any future results, performance or achievements expressed or implied by forward-looking statements. All statements other than statements of historical fact contained in this Report are forward-looking statements. In some cases, you can identify forward-looking statements by terminology such as “may,” “could,” “will,” “would,” “should,” “expect,” “plan,” “anticipate,” “believe,” “estimate,” “intend,” “predict,” “seek,” “contemplate,” “project,” “continue,” “potential,” “ongoing” or the negative of these terms or other comparable terminology.

These forward-looking statements include, but are not limited to, statements about:

the implementation of our business model and strategic plans for our business, technologies and products;
the rate and degree of market acceptance of any of our products or organic semiconductor technology in
general, including changes due to the impact of (i) new semiconductor technologies, (ii) the performance of organic semiconductor technology, whether perceived or actual, relative to competing semiconductor materials, and (iii) the performance of our products, whether perceived or actual, compared to competing silicon-based and other products;
the timing and success of our, and our customers’, product releases;
our ability to develop new products and technologies;
our estimates of our expenses, ongoing losses, future revenue and capital requirements, including our

our needs for additional financing;

our ability to obtain additional funds for our operations and our intended use of any such funds;
our ability to remain eligible on an over-the-counter quotation system;
our receipt and timing of any royalties, milestone payments or payments for products, under any current or future collaboration, license or other agreements or arrangements;
our ability to obtain and maintain intellectual property protection for our technologies and products and our ability to operate our business without infringing the intellectual property rights of others;
the strength and marketability of our intellectual property portfolio;
our dependence on current and future collaborators for developing, manufacturing or otherwise bringing our products to market;
the ability of our third-party supply and manufacturing partners to meet our current and future business needs;
our exposure to risks related to international operations;
our dependence on third-party fabrication facilities;
the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic and any future communicable disease outbreak on our business and operations;
our relationships with our executive officers, directors and significant stockholders;
our expectations regarding our classification as a “smaller reporting company,” as defined under the

Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended (the “Exchange Act”), and an “emerging growth company” under the JOBS Act (as defined below) in future periods;

our future financial performance;
the competitive landscape of our industry;
the impact of government regulation and developments relating to us, our competitors or our industry;
the restatement of previously issued financial statements;
the identified material weaknesses in our internal control over financial reporting and our ability to remediate those material weaknesses; and

5

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other risks and uncertainties, including those listed under the caption “Risk Factors.”

These statements relate to future events or our future operational or financial performance, and involve known and unknown risks, uncertainties and other factors that may cause our actual results, performance or achievements to be materially different from any future results, performance or achievements expressed or implied by these forward-looking statements. Factors that may cause actual results to differ materially from current expectations include, among other things, those listed under “Risk Factors” and elsewhere in this Amended Form 10-K/A.

Any forward-looking statement in this Amended Form 10-K/A reflects our current view with respect to future events and is subject to these and other risks, uncertainties and assumptions relating to our business, results of operations, industry and future growth. Given these uncertainties, you should not place undue reliance on these forward-looking statements. No forward-looking statement is a guarantee of future performance. You should read this Amended Form 10-K/A and the documents that we reference in this Amended Form 10-K/A and have filed with the SEC as exhibits hereto completely and with the understanding that our actual future results may be materially different from any future results expressed or implied by these forward-looking statements. Except as required by law, we assume no obligation to update or revise these forward-looking statements for any reason, even if new information becomes available in the future.

6

Table of Contents

PART I

Item 1. Business

Unless otherwise stated or the context otherwise indicates, references to “SmartKem” the “Company,” “we,” “our,” “us,” or similar terms refer to SmartKem, Inc. and its subsidiaries.

Overview

We are a pioneer in the development of materials and processes used to make OTFTs for the manufacture of flexible electronics. Our TRUFLEX® semiconductor technology deposits organic ink on a substrate at a temperature as low as 80°C, enabling manufacturers to use a range of low-cost flexible plastic substrates using existing industry standard equipment and infrastructure. Our transistor stacks are flexible, bendable, wearable and lightweight and can be used in a number of different applications, including bendable smart-phone displays, curved automotive displays, e-paper displays, wearables, fingerprint sensors and printed biosensors.

Our Technology

The invention and development of FET devices has enabled the rapid expansion of electronics industry, particularly with the advent of the planar process essential for integrated circuitry. This is due to the ability to create compact circuits with an ever-increasing capability, lower cost per logic function, and a higher frequency of operation. Integrated circuits are present in almost all electronic devices today and there is a constant drive to embed smart features into a greater number of applications.

TFTs are a type of FET that can be processed on large area flat surfaces to make display screen backplanes, digital/analog electronics and sensor arrays for a wide range of consumer and industrial applications. The manufacturing of silicon- based electronics either in wafer or thin-film form, such as a-Si on glass, requires a high temperature process (approximately 300°C). Because plastic materials melt at high temperature, TFTs are manufactured on special glass that can withstand such high temperatures and are used to produce mainly rigid products.

Our OTFT technology comprises predominantly organic materials (such as polymers and organic small molecules) and can be solution coated at low temperature (as low as 80°C) onto a wide range of low-cost plastic substrates. The similarity in stretchability and coefficient of thermal expansion between the substrate and our TRUFLEX® materials permits production of robust, bendable/flexible and lightweight devices. Our OTFT performance, as measured by charge mobility, exceeds a-Si performance by a factor of four, which we believe offers product designers a significant extension of capability, by enabling them to transform flat, bulky objects into lightweight, robust and flexible products that we expect will appeal to consumers.

Our OSC materials use a polycrystalline small molecule with high mobility, together with a low molecular weight semiconducting polymer, to control the morphology, phase segregation and uniformity of the semiconducting layer and a solvent to deliver inks that are used to make devices with mobilities in excess of 4 cm2/Vs. In addition, we have developed all the other layers that are necessary to form the complete transistor stack.

Plastic substrates, such as PET, PEN, TAC and COC have relatively low Tg in the range of 100°C to 200°C. Using these plastics at temperatures above this level causes significant distortion and, in some instances, may even result in melting or thermal breakdown of the polymer. Our OTFTs can be processed at temperatures as low as 80°C, enabling the use of polymer substrates that are optically clear and low-cost. In addition, short duration processing at low temperature results in significant energy savings. Also, plastics do not have the same risk of shattering as glass and therefore less strengthening around the edge of large area plastic-bases devices is necessary, such as the use of aluminum frames to support torsional rigidity. Plastics can also be processed in very thin sheets (tens of microns) which saves space that can be used for increased battery capacity. Thin plastic substrates also enable the device to conform very easily to non-planar surfaces such as the human body which makes them well suited for wearable sensor and display devices. Thin plastic sheets are also conformable, allowing electronics to be curved around irregular surfaces.

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Our BL, SAM, OSC, OGI, SRL and PV inks can be deposited using standard coating techniques such as spin-coating or slot-die coating which are widely used for the lithography processes used in TFT manufacturing. As a result, our OTFT process can be integrated into existing manufacturing lines using standard industrial techniques without the need for large capital investment. Furthermore, the solubility of our inks would permit customers to digitally print the features of the OTFT device, which we believe may be attractive to potential customers seeking to lower manufacturing costs.

Products and Services

We have internally developed all the materials necessary to fabricate high-performance OTFT devices except for the contact metals and substrates on which those materials are deposited. We supply our products as a set of stable liquid inks, with each ink forming a separate layer of the device. Each of the inks forming these layers has been carefully designed to result in the device performance and electrical stability required by the customer. We supply the ink set with a detailed POR for making the desired device.

Products have been scaled up for formulated ink supply to customers in packages sizes ranging from 100mL to several liters. These are supplied with CoA and POR alongside device and design consultancy to ensure successful technology transfer.

We intend to offer foundry services to customers who wish to have electronic circuits manufactured for them. Through arrangements with the United Kingdom’s CPI, we have access to a 2.5 generation (370mm x 470mm) foundry that we use for creating prototypes for evaluation by potential customers. In 2022, we intend to introduce an option to have devices produced using digital lithography (maskless photolithography), which will reduce the time from CAD layout to prototype for new designs. We do not have the ability to produce our flexible transistors at commercial scale and intend to seek relationships with existing foundries that are capable of producing our products at commercial scale to provide us with the ability to meet full production orders for customers that do not have their own facilities. We use product prototyping services to demonstrate applications enabled by OTFT to prospective customers. This allows potential customers seeking to evaluate physical samples of our materials prior to committing to purchase.

Advantages of Our TRUFLEX® Technology

The most widespread technology is a-Si which is principally used in the manufacture of backplanes for LCDs. More recent developments in inorganic semiconductors include use of the metal oxide IGZO for backplanes for large area OLED TVs and LTPS for high resolution cell phones. All these inorganic processes are operated at high temperatures and therefore require high-cost substrates, especially if they are to be processed on plastic. All are subject to failure on bending, have limited flexibility, and require additional product engineering for protection during bending to prevent failure of the display. This adds to the overall cost of production of a bendable or foldable device.

Our ability to employ TRUFLEX® materials at temperatures as low as 80°C enables manufacturers to use low-cost plastic substrates and the organic nature of our materials allows the transistors to be truly flexible. We believe that robust and lightweight display screens which are capable of being bent or folded would enable manufacturers of mobile devices to create products more tailored to customer demand and that our TRUFLEX® OFTFs are uniquely suited for this application. Our materials are organic and hence can withstand the strains experienced in severe bending such as a fold of a display. In addition, the substrate does not require the degree of protection from the edges as glass displays do which can eliminate the weight and cost associated with aluminum frames. Low temperature processing enables a wider range of plastic substrates to be used, allowing properties such as optical clarity to be optimized. There are also opportunities to process the OTFT on top of other display elements, such as a micro-LED array since the low process temperature would not damage the emissive components. We believe this ability to pattern the backplane on top of other components could lead to alternative display or sensor design configurations with advantages such as higher aperture ratio.

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Market Opportunity

According to Markets and Markets, the global display market size was valued at $148.4 billion in 2021 and is projected to reach $177.1 billion by 2026, a CAGR of 3.6% during the forecast period. Growth in the display market is driven primarily by increasing demand for consumer electronics, including smart phones, automotive products, e-readers and flat panel displays. We believe that display manufacturers continue to seek product differentiation as a part of their marketing strategies.

Our TRUFLEX® materials enable customers to make backlight units that are both flexible and can drive high currents stably. Over the last two years several manufacturers have launched TVs with mini-LED backlight units and a number of companies are developing a new generation of direct emission micro-LED displays, flexible OLED displays, and transparent OLED displays. These new formats are supported by a variety of different backplanes using tiled versions of existing technologies or PCB backplanes. We believe that TRUFLEX® materials can be used to provide active-matrix transistor arrays that can address all of these new product categories using low-cost, flexible substrates. As products become more sophisticated and smart technology is implemented in wider use cases, we expect that manufacturers will seek technology solutions, such as our TRUFLEX® technology that enable them to implement the product designs that consumers will demand.

In addition, we believe that our OTFTs are suitable for applications where a relatively low number of transistors are required over a wide area such as sensors or distributed logic circuits.

Commercialization Strategy

A large sector of our target customers are large consumer electronics companies based in Asia (Taiwan, South Korea, Japan and China) that already own or have access to display backplane manufacturing lines and engage in large scale production of display products for TV or mobile/tablet markets using a-Si process lines. We believe that these companies are continually seeking to create novel, higher added value electronics products that cannot be manufactured using a-Si glass backplanes. We believe these potential customers will be attracted to our TRUFLEX® technology which would enable them to create novel, plastic-based products with improved robustness, higher flexibility and lighter weight using their existing production lines.

Other potential customers may not have access to display manufacturing lines and will seek a complete solution for their needs, including production capability. These are often companies who will use displays as a component within their products and will buy from Asian manufacturers according to what is available at the time. We can provide prototype production from the Gen 2.5 line at CPI. We intend to scale this capability by partnering with one or more foundry providers to scale up our ability to meet full production orders for customers that do not have their own facilities. Once the demand for our backplanes has exceeded our ability to supply products then the market pull would be sufficient to engage Asian display makers to transfer production to their facilities.

Our market strategy includes the identification of specific capabilities or products that we believe can most benefit from our TRUFLEX® technology. This identification process may involve our marketing efforts or feedback and requests from potential customers. As described below, once a commercial opportunity is identified, we will engage in a process of demonstration and evaluation with the potential customer.

Our strategy also involves the design and sale of materials for use as logic devices or circuits. Once we have identified a specific application requirement, we expect to proceed with development work through an understanding of the product specifications and engineering work to calculate the size and capabilities of pixel TFTs and storage capacitors. For digital logic applications, the situation is more complex, and circuits cannot be designed without access to supporting simulation, design and layout software. In silicon IC design, EDA tools are used to predict the behavior of circuits made using foundry services. This allows designers to simulate the behavior of prototype circuits and check their functionality ahead of the fabrication, therefore saving time and money.

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We have developed an initial PDK for our process that is designed to be used by third parties in EDA software to allow them to design digital logic devices. The PDK contains information such as design rules that are specific to our process equipment, and it will also incorporate models of OTFTs made using our materials set. This will be used for digital device simulation and layout of circuit designs. We continue to characterize the electrical performance of our materials and to use that data to improve the correlation between simulations produced using those tools and actual devices. As part of this development, we expect to populate a library of reference designs for common gates used in digital electronic circuits to further simplify third party design processes.

Sales and Marketing

We have a direct sales force consisting of two employees located in Taiwan, and sales representation in China. Our CEO and management team are also actively engaged in developing customer and partner relationships. We believe that our initial customers will be located in Taiwan, Japan and the Peoples Republic of China. Our sales team is supported by engineers and product specialists located at our headquarters in the U.K. We intend to seek third-party distribution or sale-agent agreements with potential partners where we believe such agreements are justified by the potential market opportunity.

Our sales and marketing efforts have continued to be adversely impacted by the effects of the COVID-19 pandemic. During the pandemic, travel to and from Asia and other regions has been significantly restricted. As a result, we have had to cease virtually all business travel and have sought to increase our presence in affected markets through other means, including engaging sales representation in China. In addition, many of our expected customers are located in Asia, which has imposed severe lock-down restrictions in an effort to combat the pandemic. Those customers have reported supply shortages and manufacturing delays as a result of the pandemic and the related restrictions, which has had a material adverse impact on the expected markets for our products. In addition, shipping costs have increased significantly as a result of limitations on other modes of transportation.

Our marketing efforts include attendance at significant industry tradeshows at which we demonstrate the capabilities of our TRUFLEX® technology and responding to requests for proposals and other inquiries from potential customers. We also publish press releases and other announcements relating to our technical capabilities or achievements and include product information and related technical materials on our website. In addition, we market through publications, events, conferences, presentations and technical papers. We may also utilize electronic or print media advertising.

We expect that the time between the identification of a potential customer and the receipt of a purchase order or agreement for the sale of our products will be relatively long. In certain instances, a potential customer may contact us seeking a generic sample of our materials for evaluation. In other instances, a customer may come to us with specific performance specifications and inquire about our ability to provide products meeting their specifications after which we provide samples of materials or specific data for evaluation. After the initial evaluation, the prospective customer may request a prototype of a specific design as a proof-of-concept. We fabricate prototypes using the Gen 2.5 foundry access we have through our arrangement with CPI. A significant proportion of all work done during this phase of our sales cycle would be done at our expense, with customers making a contribution in some cases.

Assuming successful prototyping is completed, we expect that we would negotiate and enter into a development agreement with an interested customer under which we would, in collaboration with the potential customer, engage in further engineering and design work. We expect that we would receive compensation for those services. We might also engage in pilot-scale level manufacturing of the products developed for the customer as part of that process.

After the satisfactory completion of development work and any related pilot project, an interested customer would then enter into a sales agreement with us under which we would either agree to manufacture products to the customer’s specifications from time to time as requested by the customer, including potential minimum quantity requirements, or we would agree to license our process to the customer for a fee based on a royalty of sales and enter into a supply agreement for our proprietary inks, utilizing a process owned and qualified by us, formulated into inks either in our own facilities or by third-party formulators and shipped directly to customers.

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We expect that the sales cycle described above will take approximately 12-24 months. During that period, we will be required to incur significant expenses without any assurance that a customer order will be obtained. Accordingly, we will have a significant risk that we will incur those expenses without ever making a sale.

In October 2021, we entered into a joint development agreement with RiTdisplay, a Taiwan based developer of displays. Under this agreement the two parties are collaborating on the production of a full color demonstration AMOLED display.

In February 2022, we entered into joint development agreement with Nanosys Inc., a leader in developing and delivering quantum dot and micro-LED technology. Under this agreement the two parties will work together on a new generation of low-cost solution printed micro-LED and quantum dot materials for advanced displays.

Research and Development

We have focused our resources on the creation of high mobility semiconductors which have excellent uniformity, device stability and robustly satisfy the TFT performance specifications defined by customers. We are constantly seeking to improve the performance of our organic semiconductors and are in the process of evaluating the performance of an extensive series of recently synthesized novel small molecule semiconductors. Our chemistry team, led by our Chief Scientist, have in-depth knowledge of structure-property relationships for organic materials. Dielectric and passivation material chemistries are also critical to enabling the OTFT device current to be maximized while ensuring stability during extended operation under voltage or current bias stress. Some of the critical parameters for performance of an OTFT device include:

Charge mobility – the ability of the material to conduct charge under an electric field. The higher the charge mobility number the greater the current that can be driven through the device for a given size. Also, in circuits mobility determines the maximum switching frequency of a device from one logic state to another. a-Si has a mobility of ~0.5 cm2/Vs, LTPS typically has mobility >50 cm2/Vs and crystalline silicon has a mobility of near 1000 cm2/Vs. SmartKem’s OTFTs can achieve >3 cm2/Vs at channel length of 4 microns and >4cm2 at 10 microns.

On/off ratio – the ratio of the current driven by the transistor during its on state to the current passed during biasing in its off state. On/off ratios of >10˄6 are typically required for TFTs used in display pixels so that the programmed voltage does not decay during the frame time. Our OTFTs have on/off ratios in the order of 10˄7.

Turn on voltage (Vto) – the gate voltage at which the TFT starts to increase its current output. Values close to zero volts are considered desirable for low power consumption products. The device should also achieve its transition from off to on over as small a range of gate voltages as possible since this can reduce energy consumption and hence is desirable in battery powered devices.

Threshold voltage (Vth) - gate-source voltage at which the magnitude of the drain current reaches a specified low value (e.g., 10˄-9A).

Threshold voltage (Vth) stability – The ability of device to maintain a defined threshold or turn on voltage following a period of electrical stress (either at room temperature or elevated temperature). Bias voltage shifts of <2V after 1 hour voltage stress at 60°C and +30V or -30V is a typical specification required for display applications. We have demonstrated <1V Vth bias stress shift for NBTS and <2V for PBTS in R&D tests. We are working on integrating this capability into our full five-mask device stack.

Once new materials have been characterized, our materials process development team at Manchester in the U.K. customizes the formulations and process parameters to allow integration into the device process at CPI. This team establishes the BKMs for each material and generates understanding of the parameters that can influence the performance. Initial work may also be done to plan scale up routes for the materials in anticipation of the need to supply to customers.

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The generation of fabrication processes and the integration of new materials is done at CPI under the direction of our Chief Technology Officer. The toolsets at this site provide a rapid feedback loop between our chemistry R&D and industry relevant device performance data sets. Additionally, the equipment set can be used to generate demonstrator OTFT backplane devices on plastic, OTFT driven displays, and sensors or circuits. Technology transfer to customers’ pilot lines can also be supported by this team and they can help to diagnose and rectify process problems. Process engineers also travel to customers’ sites to assist technology transfer alongside our field application engineering team in Taiwan. This capability has been significantly hampered the COVID-19 pandemic.

In December 2021, we became a member of the University of California, Santa Barbara (UCSB) Solid State Lighting and Energy Electronics Centre (SSLEEC) which is conducting innovative research into the development of micro-LED displays. As a member of the SSLEEC we have the right to obtain access to technologies and intellectual property developed by the Center in fields such as micro-LEDs and displays.

Intellectual Property

Our commercial success depends in part on our ability to obtain and maintain intellectual property protection for our active organic semiconductors, formulated OSC and passive interlayer inks, processes and know-how that collectively comprise our TRUFLEX® technology, to operate without infringing the proprietary rights of third parties, and to prevent others from infringing our proprietary rights. Over the past 10 years, we have been building and are continuing to build the intellectual property portfolio relating to our TRUFLEX® technology. Our policy is to seek to protect our proprietary position by, among other methods, filing U.S. and certain foreign patent applications related to our proprietary technology, inventions and improvements that are important to the development and implementation of our business. We also rely on trade secrets, know-how, and technological innovation to develop and maintain our proprietary position. We cannot be certain that patents will be granted with respect to any of our pending patent applications or with respect to any patent applications filed by us in the future, nor can we be sure that any of our existing patents or any patents that may be granted to us in the future will be commercially useful in protecting our technology.

Our strategy for the protection of our proprietary technology is to file international (Patent Cooperation Treaty) patent application and pursue these in national jurisdictions that represent significant market opportunities. However, we assess on a case-by-case basis whether it is strategically more favorable to maintain trade secret protection for our inventions and “know-how” rather than pursue patent protection the latter of which documents will ultimately be in the public domain. Generally, patents have a term of twenty years from the earliest priority date, assuming that all maintenance fees are paid, no portion of the patent has been terminally disclaimed, and the patent has not been invalidated. In certain jurisdictions, and in certain circumstances, patent terms can be extended or reduced.

We believe that we are a technology leader in the design, development, and production of active and passive electronic materials for use in organic electronic applications. Our patent portfolio is distributed across 16 patent families as set forth in the table below and includes 122 issued patents, 15 pending patent applications and more than 30 trade secrets. Our patents cover the active organic semiconductor materials, active and passive interlayer formulations, and deposition processes comprising our TRUFLEX® technology. We also have numerous patent claims and pending patent applications covering a variety of electronic devices including a novel dual gate application that enables enhanced Vto control. Because our patent portfolio covers all material aspects of our TRUFLEX® technology, we believe we have strong protection for our technology and a competitive advantage over potential competitors who may seek to duplicate our ability to create flexible transistors.

We also rely on trade-secret protection for our confidential and proprietary information, and we typically use non-disclosure agreements when commencing a relationship with a potential customer or partner. We have an internal program to document our trade secrets for each major area of our technology and operations. We cannot be sure that we can meaningfully protect our trade secrets on a continuing basis. Others may independently develop substantially equivalent confidential and proprietary information or otherwise gain access to our trade secrets. The TRUFLEX® trademark is granted and registered to the Company in its 10 commercially interesting jurisdictions including USA, China, Korea, Taiwan, Japan, and Europe.

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We own substantive rights to the chemistry, process, and stack design rules necessary to implement our technology in all jurisdictions of commercial interest.

Manufacturing and Supply

We obtain strategic intermediates and final products from multiple sources who produce our active semiconductor materials to our specifications. Our TRUFLEX® materials fall into two main categories, “active” organic semiconductor materials and “passive” interlayer materials. Our active materials generally require high levels of process and product control, and therefore these are synthesized from start to end by us or a third party that has met certain certification requirements and then formulated by us into the organic semiconductor inks. We validate active components internally before use. Our passive interlayers inks use a range of commercially available intermediates, formulated to our specifications to meet differing end-use performance parameters depending on the intended use. Our active and passive inks are proprietary to us.

We synthesize the active materials either internally or using third-party suppliers that meet specific certification requirements. The raw materials used to produce the formulated passive interlayers are purchased from multiple suppliers and tested and validated internally before use. The passive and active interlayer inks are presently manufactured internally in our formulation facility located in Manchester in the U.K.

We use our U.K.-based formulation activity to enable customers to validate our materials on their Gen1- Gen2.5 pilot lines. Our TRUFLEX® inks typically comprise between 1.2% up to 25% by weight of solids with the remainder being made up by electronic grade solvents. For commercial supply quantities, to avoid the shipping costs associated with large quantities of locally available solvents, we expect to supply fully formulated ink to customers from a formulation facility located close to the customer’s manufacturing facility. We may also outsource the ink manufacture to an accredited third-party local formulator subject to our final QC testing of the formulated inks.

We have not experienced any supply shortages with respect to the materials used to formulate our proprietary inks. In addition, we have not experienced scheduling delays in obtaining access to CPI’s foundry equipment.

To date, our manufacturing and supply operations have not been adversely impacted by the COVID-19 pandemic. However, we may be impacted in the future as we seek to expand our operations and enter into foundry arrangements with third-party manufacturers.

CPI Agreement

We perform prototyping with our own employees using foundry equipment made available to us by CPI. We use the CPI facility to produce test samples for internal evaluation and for the supply of demonstrators to potential customers and for general market development. CPI is funded through a combination of U.K. government grants, collaborative research and development projects funded by the private and public sector and contracts funded by businesses. CPI provides services to companies engaged in translating ideas and inventions into commercially successful products and processes. It operates seven national facilities in the Northeast of England and Scotland and provides industry relevant expertise and assets to its customers.

We have entered into a framework services agreement with the Centre For Process Innovation Limited (“CPIL”), the management company for CPI, pursuant to which we purchase services consisting primarily of access to CPI process equipment required for fabrication as well as access to CPI staff with specific skills, to the extent required, at specified costs, including a minimum annual spending requirement. We have 16 employees at the CPI facility who operate the CPI equipment on our behalf. Pursuant to the terms of this agreement, we utilize an online booking system to book usage of equipment for immediate use, subject to availability. For critical equipment that other CPI customers may seek to use, we may book up to two weeks in advance to guarantee availability. CPIL has agreed to use its reasonable commercial endeavors to supply the requested services.

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The latest agreement with CPIL became effective upon the Closing and has a fixed term of three years. The agreement may be terminated by either party in the event of a breach by the other party. We also lease office space at CPI’s facility in Sedgefield, England.

Competition

We believe that competition in our targeted markets is based on a variety of factors, including capability, functionality, performance, reliability, ease of use and ability to supply in sufficient quantities. We believe we can, or will be able to, compete effectively based on these factors.

a-Si technology is an inorganic process widely used in the manufacture of backplanes for LCDs. More recent developments in inorganic semiconductors include use of the metal oxide IGZO for backplanes for large area OLED TVs and LTPS for high resolution cell phones. All these inorganic processes are operated at high temperatures and therefore require high-cost substrates, especially if they are to be processed on plastic. We believe all of these technologies are subject to failure on bending and have limited, if any, flexibility.

A number of competitors have engaged in the development of organic inks. However, these competitors either opt to use polymeric semiconductors (BASF SE, Merck KGaA and Sumitomo Chemical Co., Ltd.) that process well but have a lower mobility than the polycrystalline organic materials in our TRUFLEX® materials, or polycrystalline semiconductors that have high mobility but relatively poor uniformity when processed. We believe our proprietary technology, which combines a polycrystalline molecule with a matched semiconducting polymer, provides higher mobility and better processability over these technologies.

Many of our potential competitors could have substantial competitive advantages such as greater name recognition, longer operating histories, broader and deeper product portfolios, larger customer bases, substantially greater financial and other resources, and larger scale manufacturing operations. However, we believe our products have the potential to compete with many of our competitors’ offerings through product performance, product reliability and satisfaction of customer qualifications and standards.

Government Regulation

In addition to customer specific requirements for safety health and the environment, our formulated materials also may be subject to government regulation during their use in the country of device manufacture and from regulations covering the materials in the finished device. These could include the toxicity (potential for Carcinogenicity, Mutagenicity, and Teratogenicity) and restrictions from the Environmental Protection Agencies in the countries of manufacture.

All new chemicals we obtain are evaluated the time of order and a Control of Substances Hazardous to Health (“COSHH”) assessment is performed prior to commencement of any practical work with these materials. The COSHH assessment considers chemical hazards associated with the material, its physical properties, the scale of the planned work and the nature of that work e.g., temperature and containment. This process provides the first opportunity to screen out any materials that may be prohibited by the ultimate customer. Any use of material in Health and Safety Executive COSHH hazard category E, all but gram scale uses of non-volatile material in hazard category D and use of material in hazard category C in quantities of more than 1kg would trigger a management review. While it is possible that management authorization may be given to conduct research using materials in categories D & E, their use in a potential formulated product would be discouraged and an alternative sought at an early stage. Materials are also screened against lists of banned and restricted materials provided by display manufacturers. Any material present on the display manufacturers banned list would not be used in formulated product.

We work with a third-party service provider to create safety data sheets for our formulated products that are shipped to customers and other end users. Our formulated products contain no materials that are restricted in the U.K. and no permissions or exemptions are required.

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Our OGI material is fluorinated and spun from a fluorosolvent listed under regulation (EC) No 428/2009 of 5 May 2009 under section 1C006d. Export of formulations may require a Standard individual export license to be applied for and end use declaration made by the customer. These can be obtained through the U.K.’s SPIRE system.

To the extent our products are or become subject to U.K. export controls and regulations, these regulations may limit the export of our products and technology, and provision of our services outside of the U.K., or may require export authorizations, including by license, a license exception, or other appropriate government authorizations and conditions, including annual or semi-annual reporting. Export control and economic sanctions laws may also include prohibitions on the sale or supply of certain of our products to embargoed or sanctioned countries, regions, governments, persons, and entities. In addition, various countries regulate the importation of certain products, through import permitting and licensing requirements, and have enacted laws that could limit our ability to distribute our products. The exportation, re-exportation, and importation of our products and technology and the provision of services, including by our partners, must comply with these laws or else we may be adversely affected, through reputational harm, government investigations, penalties, and a denial or curtailment of our ability to export our products and technology. Complying with export control and sanctions laws may be time-consuming and may result in the delay or loss of sales opportunities. Although we take precautions to prevent our products and technology from being provided in violation of such laws, our products and technology may have previously been, and could in the future be, provided inadvertently in violation of such laws, despite the precautions we take. If we are found to be in violation of U.K. sanctions or export control laws, it could result in substantial fines and penalties for us and for the individuals working for us. Export or import laws or sanctions policies are subject to rapid change and have been the subject of recent U.K. and non-U.K. government actions. Changes in export or import laws or sanctions policies, may adversely impact our operations, delay the introduction and sale of our products in international markets, or, in some cases, prevent the export or import of our products and technology to certain countries, regions, governments, persons, or entities altogether, which could adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.

Employees

As of December 31, 2021, we had 41 full-time employees and 3 part-time employees of which 39 are based in the United Kingdom. 17 of our employees hold advanced degrees, including 11 Ph.Ds. We believe that our scientists and technical experts are significant assets of our business, and we value and support hiring exceptional talent to further develop our TRUFLEX® technology and drive our business growth.

Corporate History

We were originally incorporated as Parasol Investments Corporation in the State of Delaware in May 2020. Prior to the acquisition of SmartKem Ltd in February 2021, we were a “shell” company registered under the Exchange Act, with no specific business plan or purpose. In accordance with “reverse merger” accounting treatment, our historical financial statements at period ends, and for periods ended, prior to our acquisition of SmartKem Limited were replaced with the historic financial statements of SmartKem Ltd in our SEC filings made after the acquisition.

Our principal executive offices are located at Manchester Technology Centre, Hexagon Tower, Delaunays Road, Blackley Manchester, M9 8GQ U.K. Our telephone number is +44 (0)161 721 1514.

Additional Information

We maintain a website at www.smartkem.com, to which we regularly post copies of our press releases as well as additional information about us. Our filings with the SEC will be available free of charge through the website as soon as reasonably practicable after being electronically filed with or furnished to the SEC. Information contained in our website is not a part of, nor incorporated by reference into, this Report or our other filings with the SEC, and should not be relied upon.

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Item 1A. Risk Factors

An investment in our securities is highly speculative and involves a high degree of risk. We face a variety of risks that may affect our operations or financial results and many of those risks are driven by factors that we cannot control or predict. You should carefully consider the risks described below together with all of the other information in this Amended Annual Report, including our consolidated financial statements and the related notes and the information described in the section entitled “Item 7. Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations,” and in our other filings with the SEC. If any of the risks described below occur, our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects could be materially adversely affected. In that case, the market price of our common stock would likely decline and investors could lose all or a part of their investment. Only those investors who can bear the risk of loss of their entire investment should consider an investment in our securities. Additional risks and uncertainties not presently known to us or that we currently deem immaterial may also impair our operations.

Summary of Risk Factors

We have a history of losses, anticipate increasing our operating expenses in the future, and may not be able to achieve or maintain profitability. If we cannot achieve or maintain profitability, stockholders could lose all or part of their investment.
Our recurring losses from operations have raised substantial doubt regarding our ability to continue as a going concern.
Our quarterly results of operations are likely to vary from period to period, which could cause the market price of our common stock to fluctuate or decline.
We may not be able to develop technologies and products to satisfy changes in customer demand or industry standards, and our competitors could develop products that decrease the demand for our products.
We compete in highly competitive markets characterized by rapid technological changes, and existing and new companies may introduce products that compete with ours, which may adversely our business and operating results.
If we are unable to establish sales capabilities on our own or through third parties, we may not be able to market and sell our existing or future product candidates, if approved, or generate product revenue.
We rely on the CPI for access to fabrication and expect to enter into arrangements with third-party fabricators to produce our products at commercial scale. The loss of access to the CPI facility, or our inability to enter into agreements with third-party fabricators could have a material adverse effect on our business development.
Because we will depend on third-party fabricators to manufacture products for us, we will be susceptible to manufacturing delays and pricing fluctuations that could prevent us from shipping customer orders on time, if at all, or on a cost-effective basis, which may result in the loss of sales, income and customers.
We rely on our management team and other key employees and will need additional personnel to grow our business. The loss of one or more key employees or our inability to attract and retain qualified personnel could harm our business.
Any failure by us to protect our proprietary technologies or maintain the right to use certain technologies may negatively affect our ability to compete.

We will incur significantly increased costs and devote substantial management time as a result of operating as a public company.

We identified a material weakness in connection with our internal financial reporting controls. Although we are taking steps to remediate this material weakness, there is no assurance we will be successful in doing so in a timely manner, or at all, and we may identify other material weaknesses.
An active trading market for our common stock may not develop or be sustained which may make it difficult for investors to sell shares of our common stock and may make it difficult for us to raise capital.
We do not anticipate paying dividends on our common stock, and investors may lose the entire amount of their investment.

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Risks Related to our Business and the Industry in Which We Operate

We have a history of losses, anticipate increasing our operating expenses in the future, and may not be able to achieve or maintain profitability. If we cannot achieve or maintain profitability, stockholders could lose all or part of their investment.

Since our inception, we have generated substantial net losses as we have devoted our resources to the development of our technology, and our business model has not been proven. As of December 31, 2021, we had an accumulated deficit of $75.1 million. For the years ended December 31, 2021 and December 31, 2020 our total comprehensive loss was $17.0 million and $23.4 million, respectively. We expect our operating expenses to increase in the future as we expand our sales and marketing efforts and continue to invest in our infrastructure and research and development of our technologies. These efforts may be more costly than we expect, and we may not be able to generate revenue to offset our increased operating expenses. If we are unable to generate revenue, we may never become profitable or be able to maintain any future profitability. If this were to occur, our stockholders could lose all or part of their investment.

Our recurring losses from operations have raised substantial doubt regarding our ability to continue as a going concern.

We have incurred recurring losses since inception and, as of December 31, 2021, had an accumulated deficit of $75.1 million. We anticipate operating losses to continue for the foreseeable future due to, among other things, costs related to research funding, further development of our technology and products and expenses related to the commercialization of our products, and it is possible we will never achieve profitability. As a result, our independent registered public accounting firm included an explanatory paragraph in its report on our consolidated financial statements as of and for the year ended December 31, 2021. Future reports on our consolidated financial statements may include an explanatory paragraph with respect to our ability to continue as a going concern. The consolidated financial statements do not include any adjustments that might be necessary should we be unable to continue as a going concern.

We expect that our cash and cash equivalents will be sufficient to support our operations through the first quarter of 2023. We will need to obtain additional funds to satisfy our operational needs and to fund our sales and marketing efforts, research and development expenditures, and business development activities. It is possible this period could be shortened if there are any significant increases in planned spending or development programs or more rapid progress of development programs than anticipated. Our future capital requirements will depend on many factors including our ability to generate revenue from product sales, the timing and extent of spending to support our sales and marketing, product development and research and development efforts and our needs for working capital to support our business operations. We may in the future enter into arrangements to acquire or invest in complementary businesses, services and technologies, including intellectual property rights.

Until such time, if ever, as we can generate substantial product revenue, we expect to finance our working capital requirements through a combination of equity offerings, debt financings, collaborations, strategic alliances and marketing, distribution or licensing arrangements. To the extent that we raise additional capital through the sale of equity or convertible debt securities, your ownership interest will be diluted, and the terms of these securities may include liquidation or other preferences that adversely affect your rights as a common stockholder. Debt financing and preferred equity financing, if available, may involve agreements that include covenants limiting or restricting our ability to take specific actions, such as incurring additional debt, making acquisitions or capital expenditures or declaring dividends. If we raise additional funds through collaborations, strategic alliances or marketing, distribution or licensing arrangements with third parties, we may have to relinquish valuable rights to our technologies, future revenue streams, research programs or products, or grant licenses on terms that may not be favorable to us. If we are unable to raise additional funds through equity or debt financings or other arrangements when needed, we may be required to delay, limit, reduce or terminate commercialization, our research and product development, or grant rights to develop and market our products that we would otherwise prefer to develop and market ourselves, it may also impact our ability to continue as a going concern. The perception that we may not be able to continue as a going concern may cause others to choose not to deal with us due to concerns about our ability to meet our contractual obligations.

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Our quarterly results of operations are likely to vary from period to period, which could cause the market price of our common stock to fluctuate or decline.

Our results of operations have varied from period to period, and we expect that our quarterly results of operations will continue to vary as a result of a number of factors, many of which are outside of our control and may be difficult to predict, including:

our ability to attract existing customers, including due to our perceived or actual financial condition;
the budgeting cycles and purchasing practices of customers;
the timing and length of our sales cycles, including the ability of our customers to design-in successfully with our technology;
changes in customer requirements or market needs, including market acceptance of our technology;
the timing and impact of new product introductions by us or our competitors or any other change in the competitive landscape of the semiconductor industry, including consolidation among our customers or competitors;
deferral of orders from customers in anticipation of new products or product enhancements announced by us or our competitors;
our ability to execute our growth strategy and operating plans;
our ability to successfully expand our business domestically and internationally;
our ability to successfully compete with other companies in our market;
changes in our pricing policies or those of our competitors;
any disruption in, or termination of, our relationship with channel partners;
insolvency or credit difficulties confronting our customers, affecting their ability to purchase or pay for our products, or confronting our key suppliers, which could disrupt our supply chain;
the cost and potential outcomes of potential future litigation;
general economic conditions, both domestic (including the impact of “Brexit” on the U.K. economy) and in our foreign markets; and
the amount and timing of operating costs and capital expenditures related to the expansion of our business.

Any of the above factors, individually or in the aggregate, may result in significant fluctuations in our quarterly operating results. As a result of this variability, our historical results of operations should not be relied upon as an indication of future performance. Moreover, this variability and unpredictability could result in our failure to follow through on our operating plans or meet the expectations of investors for any period. If we fail to follow through on our operating plans or meet such expectations for these or other reasons, the market price of our common stock could fall substantially.

We may not be able to develop technologies and products to satisfy changes in customer demand or industry standards, and our competitors could develop products that decrease the demand for our products.

Rapidly changing technologies and industry standards, along with frequent new product introductions, characterize the industries of many of our customers and potential customers. Our financial performance depends, in part, on our ability to design, develop, manufacture, assemble, test, market and support new products and enhancements on a timely and cost-effective basis.

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We have not commercialized any of our products. Our principal focus has been on research and development activities to improve our technology and make our product offerings more attractive to potential customers. These projects are subject to various risks and uncertainties we are not able to control, including changes in customer demand or industry standards and the introduction of new or superior technologies by others. Moreover, any failure by us in the future to develop new technologies or timely react to changes in existing technologies could materially delay our development of new products, which could result in product obsolescence, decreased revenues and a loss of our market share to our competitors. In addition, products or technologies developed by others may render our products or technologies obsolete or non-competitive. Further, if our products are not in compliance with prevailing industry standards, such non-compliance could materially and adversely affect our financial condition, cash flows and results of operations.

We compete in highly competitive markets characterized by rapid technological changes, and existing and new companies may introduce products that compete with ours, which may adversely our business and operating results.

The markets in which we compete are highly competitive. We expect competition to intensify in the future as existing competitors and new market entrants introduce new products into our markets. This competition could result in increased pricing pressure, reduced profit margins, increased sales and marketing expenses, and the loss of market share, any of which could seriously harm our business, financial condition and results of operations. Additionally, our competitors may develop technology that would make ours non-competitive or obsolete. If we do not keep pace with product and technology advances and otherwise keep our product offerings competitive, there could be a material and adverse effect on our competitive position, revenue and prospects for growth. Many of our existing competitors, have, and some of our potential competitors could have, substantial competitive advantages such as:

greater name recognition, longer operating histories and larger customer bases;
larger sales and marketing budgets and resources;
broader distribution and established relationships with channel partners and customers;
broader and deeper product lines;
greater customer support resources;
greater resources to make acquisitions;
lower labor and research and development costs;
substantially greater financial and other resources; and
larger scale manufacturing operations.

Some of our larger competitors have substantially broader product offerings and may be able to leverage their relationships with channel partners and customers based on other products to gain business in a manner that discourages users from purchasing our products, including by selling at zero or negative margins or product bundling. Potential customers may also prefer to purchase from their existing suppliers rather than a new supplier regardless of product performance or features. As a result, even if the features of our products are superior, customers may not purchase our products. In addition, innovative start-up companies, and larger companies that are making significant investments in research and development, may invent similar or superior products and technologies that compete with our products. Our current and potential competitors may also establish cooperative relationships among themselves or with third parties that may further enhance their resources. If we are unable to compete successfully, or if competing successfully requires us to take costly actions in response to the actions of our competitors, our business, financial condition and results of operations could be adversely affected.

If we are unable to establish sales capabilities on our own or through third parties, we may not be able to market and sell our existing or future product candidates, if approved, or generate product revenue.

We do not currently have a fully staffed sales organization. We intend to commercialize our products with a direct sales force. To achieve this, we will be required to build a direct sales organization. We also will have to build our marketing, sales, managerial and other non-technical capabilities or make arrangements with third parties for distribution and to perform certain of these other services, and we may not be successful in doing so. Building an internal sales organization is time consuming and expensive and will significantly increase our compensation expense. We may be unable to secure contracts with distributors on favorable terms or at all. We have no prior experience in the marketing,

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sale and distribution of our products and there are significant risks involved in building and managing a sales organization, including our ability to hire, retain and motivate qualified individuals, generate sufficient sales leads, provide adequate training to sales and marketing personnel, and effectively oversee a geographically dispersed sales and marketing team. If we are unable to build an effective sales organization and/or if we are unable to secure relationships with third-party distributors, we will not be able to commercialize successfully our products, our future product revenue will suffer and we would incur significant additional losses.

We rely on CPI for access to fabrication and expect to enter into arrangements with third-party fabricators to produce our products at commercial scale. The loss of access to the CPI facility, or our inability to enter into agreements with third-party fabricators could have a material adverse effect on our business development.

We do not have our own fabrication facility and rely on CPI for access to its facility for fabrication of prototypes and demonstration products. If we lost access to CPI’s fabrication facility, it would materially and adversely affect our ability to manufacture prototypes and demonstration products for potential customers. The loss of access may also significantly impede our ability to engage in product development and process improvement activities. We expect to enter into arrangements with third-party fabricators to produce products for customers for demonstration products or for commercial product sale, other than for our formulated materials. The third-party fabricators are often located in Asia, but could also be in the United States. No assurance can be given that we will be able to negotiate agreements with third-party fabricators on terms that are acceptable to us. Third-party fabricators may not have the ability to provide us with access to adequate capacity for our needs and our customers’ needs. We will also have less control over delivery schedules and overall support compared to competitors who have commercial fabrication operations. If the fabricators we use are unable or unwilling to manufacture our products in our required volumes, or at specified times, we may have to identify and qualify acceptable additional or alternative fabricators. This qualification process could typically take three to six months and we may not find sufficient capacity in a timely manner or at an acceptable cost to satisfy our production requirements. Some companies that supply products to our customers are similarly dependent on a limited number of suppliers. These other companies’ products may represent important components of the displays into which our products are designed. If these companies are unable to produce the volumes demanded by our customers, our customers may be forced to slow down or halt production on the equipment for which our products are designed, which could materially impact our order levels and our results of operations.

Because we will depend on third-party fabricators to manufacture products for us, we will be susceptible to manufacturing delays and pricing fluctuations that could prevent us from shipping customer orders on time, if at all, or on a cost-effective basis, which may result in the loss of sales, income and customers.

We expect to rely on third-party fabricators to manufacture products containing our proprietary inks for certain of our future customers. Our reliance on these third-party fabricators reduces our control over the manufacturing process and exposes us to risks, including reduced control over quality assurance, product costs, and product supply and timing. Any manufacturing disruption by these third-party fabricators could severely impair our ability to fulfill orders. Our reliance on third-party fabricators also creates the potential for infringement or misappropriation of our intellectual property. If we are unable to manage our relationships with third-party fabricators effectively, or if our third-party fabricators experience delays or disruptions for any reason, increased manufacturing lead-times, capacity constraints or quality control problems in their fabrication operations, or if they otherwise fail to meet our future requirements for timely delivery, our ability to ship products to our customers would be severely impaired, and our business and results of operations would be seriously harmed.

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We expect that our sales cycles will be long and unpredictable, and our sales efforts will require considerable time and expense. As a result, our revenue is difficult to predict and may vary substantially from period to period, which may cause our results of operations to fluctuate significantly.

Our results of operations may fluctuate, in part, because of the resource intensive nature of our sales efforts, the length and variability of our expected sales cycle and the short-term difficulty in adjusting our operating expenses. We provide reference designs and prototypes intended to demonstrate our ability to satisfy customer requirements and we expect that we will be required to continue to do so before receiving sales orders, which will result in a relatively long sales cycle. Because we expect that the length of time required to close a sale will vary substantially from customer to customer and each customer has its own requirements, it is difficult to predict exactly when, or even if, we will make a sale with a potential customer after significant work has been put in to create a model or prototype. As a result, we expect that individual sales will, in some cases, occur in quarters subsequent to or in advance of those we anticipated, or will not occur at all, which makes it difficult for us to forecast our revenue accurately in any quarter. Because a substantial portion of our expenses are relatively fixed in the short term, our results of operations will suffer if our revenue falls below expectations in a particular quarter, which could cause the market price of our common stock to decline. Additionally, to the extent our competitors develop products that our prospective customers view as equivalent or superior to ours, the average duration of our sales cycles may increase, and our sales efforts may be less successful.

Our current operations are concentrated in one main location and in the event of an earthquake, terrorist attack or other disaster affecting this location or those of our major suppliers, our operations may be interrupted and our business may be harmed.

Our principal executive offices and primary operating facilities are situated in England and Asia, and most of our major suppliers, which are wafer foundries and assembly houses, are located in areas that have been subject to severe earthquakes and are susceptible to other disasters such as tropical storms, typhoons or tsunamis. In the event of a disaster, such as an earthquake and tsunami in Japan, we or one or more of our major suppliers may be temporarily unable to continue operations and may suffer significant property damage. Any interruption in our ability, or that of our major suppliers, to continue operations could delay the development and shipment of our products and have a substantial negative impact on our financial results. As part of our risk management policy, we maintain insurance coverage at levels that we believe are appropriate for our business. However, in the event of an accident or incident at these facilities, we cannot assure you that the amounts or coverage of insurance will be sufficient to satisfy any damages and losses.

We rely on our management team and other key employees and will need additional personnel to grow our business. The loss of one or more key employees or our inability to attract and retain qualified personnel could harm our business.

Our future success is substantially dependent on our ability to attract, retain and motivate the members of our management team and other key employees throughout our organization. The loss of one or more members of our management team or other key employees could materially impact our sales or our research and development programs and materially harm our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects. We do not maintain key person life insurance policies on any of our management team members or key employees. Competition for highly skilled personnel is intense. We may not be successful in attracting or retaining qualified personnel to fulfill our current or future needs. Our competitors may be successful in recruiting and hiring members of our management team or other key employees, and it may be difficult for us to find suitable replacements on a timely basis, on competitive terms, or at all.

If we fail to effectively manage our growth, our business, financial condition and results of operations would be harmed.

We are a development stage company and are subject to the strains of ongoing development and growth, which has placed significant demands on our management and our operational and financial infrastructure. To manage any growth effectively, we must continue to improve our operational, financial and management systems and controls by, among other things:

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effectively attracting, training and integrating new employees, particularly members of our sales, applications and research and development teams;
further improving our key business applications, processes and IT infrastructure to support our business needs;
enhancing our information and communication systems to ensure that our employees and offices around the world are well coordinated and can effectively communicate with each other and our channel partners and customers; and
appropriately documenting and testing our IT systems and business processes.

These and other improvements in our systems and controls will require significant capital expenditures and the allocation of valuable management and employee resources. If we fail to implement these improvements effectively, our ability to manage growth and ensure ongoing operation of key business systems would be impaired, and our business, financial condition and results of operations would be harmed.

The COVID-19 global pandemic and resulting adverse economic conditions have already adversely impacted our business and could have a more material adverse impact on our business, financial condition and results of operations.

The COVID-19 global pandemic has had and could continue to have an adverse impact on the business operations of our company and our employees, joint development partners, prospective customers, suppliers and the overall economy. Our business and operations have been disrupted and higher costs have been incurred as a result of, among other things, measures to address the health and safety of our employees, government work from home directives, quarantines, worker absenteeism as a result of illness, social distancing and travel restrictions that prevented face to face meetings with joint development partners, prospects and suppliers. We adopted remote working measures in an effort to mitigate the spread and impact of COVID 19.

The COVID-19 global pandemic also resulted in severe disruptions and volatility in the global economy and financial markets, which may result in an extended economic slowdown or a global recession that could adversely impact our business. At various times during the outbreak, the countries in which we operate and do business took dramatic action including, without limitation, ordering all nonessential workers to stay home, mandating the closure of schools and nonessential business premises and imposing isolation measures on large portions of the population. Additionally, a recurrence in volatility due to a resurgence in the COVID-19 global pandemic could impact our future access to capital and credit markets.

We are continuing to monitor the spread of COVID-19, including the emerging variants of the disease, and related risks, including risks related to efforts to mitigate the disease’s spread. The rapid development and fluidity of the situation, however, precludes any prediction as to its ultimate impact on us. The emergence of new variants of the coronavirus or of other illnesses may adversely impact our future operations, business development activities and our access to capital markets.

Any of the above factors, or other cascading effects of the COVID-19 pandemic that are not currently foreseeable, could materially increase our costs, severely negatively impact business development and commercialization, net income, and other results of operations, and impact our liquidity position. The duration of any such impacts cannot be predicted, and such impacts may also have the effect of heightening many of the other material risks we face.

We are subject to a number of risks associated with international sales and operations.

We have small teams that are engaged in marketing, selling and supporting our products internationally. As a result, we must hire and train experienced personnel to staff and manage our foreign operations. To the extent that we experience difficulties in recruiting, training, managing and retaining international employees, particularly managers and other members of our international sales team, we may experience difficulties in sales productivity in, or market penetration of, foreign markets. We also enter into strategic distributor and reseller relationships with companies in certain international markets where we do not have a local presence. If we are not able to maintain successful strategic distributor and reseller relationships with our international channel partners or recruit additional channel partners, our future success in these international markets could be limited.

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We are subject to risks associated with international operations.

We have operations in the United Kingdom and Asia and expect that most of our sales revenue will result from sales to customers in Asia. A number of risks inherent in international operations could have a material adverse effect on our results of operations, including:

fluctuations in U.S. dollar/U.K. pound value arising from transactions denominated in foreign currencies and the translation of certain foreign currency subsidiaries balances;
difficulties in staffing and managing multi-national operations;
adverse changes in economic and political conditions resulting from armed conflict, social unrest and other circumstances impacting countries in which we or our customers operate;
limitations on our ability to enforce legal rights and remedies;
restrictions on the repatriation of funds;
changes in trade policies, laws, regulations, political leadership and environment, and/or security risks;
tariff regulations;
difficulties in obtaining export and import licenses and compliance with export/import controls and regulations;
the risk of government financed competition;
compliance with a variety of international laws as well as U.K. regulations, rules and practices affecting the

activities of companies abroad; and

difficulties in managing and staffing international operations and the required infrastructure costs, including legal, tax, accounting, and information technology.

Geopolitical risks associated with Russia’s recent invasion of Ukraine could result in increased market volatility and uncertainty, which could negatively impact our business, financial condition, and results of operations.

The uncertain nature, scope, magnitude, and duration of hostilities stemming from Russia’s recent military invasion of Ukraine, including the potential effects of such hostilities as well as sanctions, embargoes, asset freezes, cyber-attacks and other actions taken in response to such hostilities on the world economy and markets, have disrupted global markets and contributed to increased market volatility and uncertainty, which could have an adverse impact on macroeconomic and other factors that affect our business and supply chain. There can be no certainty regarding the impacts stemming from the invasion, including the imposition of additional sanctions, embargoes, asset freezes or other economic or military measures resulting from the invasion. The impact of these developments, and additional events that may occur as a result, is currently unknown and could adversely affect our business, supply chain, suppliers and customers and potential customers. It is not possible to predict the broader consequences of this conflict, which could include further sanctions, embargoes, regional instability, geopolitical shifts and adverse effects on macroeconomic conditions, the availability and cost of materials, supplies, labor, currency exchange rates and financial markets, all of which could negatively impact our business, financial condition and results of operations.

Failure to comply with anti-bribery, anti-corruption and anti-money laundering laws as well as export control laws, import and customs laws, trade and economic sanctions laws and other laws governing our operations could subject us to penalties and other adverse consequences.

We are subject to anti-bribery, anti-corruption and anti-money laundering laws and regulations including the U.K. Bribery Act 2010 (“Bribery Act”), the U.S. Foreign Corrupt Practices Act (“FCPA”) and other anti-corruption, anti-bribery, and anti-money laundering laws in the jurisdictions in which we do business from time to time, both domestic and abroad. These laws generally prohibit us and our employees from improperly influencing government officials or commercial parties in order to obtain or retain business, direct business to any person or gain any improper advantage. The Bribery Act, FCPA and similar applicable anti-bribery and anti-corruption laws also prohibit our third-party business partners, representatives and agents from engaging in corruption and bribery. We and our third-party business partners, representatives and agents may have direct or indirect interactions with officials and employees of government agencies or state-owned or affiliated entities. We may be held liable for the corrupt or other illegal activities of these third-party business partners and intermediaries, our employees, representatives, contractors, channel partners and

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agents, even if we do not explicitly authorize such activities. These laws also require that we keep accurate books and records and maintain internal controls and compliance procedures designed to prevent any such actions.

We are also subject to other laws and regulations governing international operations, including regulations administered by the governments of the U.K and the U.S., and authorities in the European Union, including applicable export control regulations, economic sanctions and embargoes on certain countries and persons, anti-money laundering laws, import and customs requirements and currency exchange regulations, collectively referred to as the Trade Control laws.

Any violation of the Bribery Act, FCPA or other applicable anti-bribery, anti-corruption laws and anti-money laundering laws including Trade Control laws could result in whistleblower complaints, adverse media coverage, investigations, imposition of significant legal fees, loss of export privileges, severe criminal or civil sanctions or suspension or debarment from government contracts, substantial diversion of management’s attention, drop in stock price or overall adverse consequences to our business, all of which may have an adverse effect on our reputation, business, financial condition, and results of operations.

The potential impact of “Brexit” could have a material adverse effect on our business.

The U.K.’s membership of the European Union ceased on January 1, 2021. There are significant uncertainties in relation to what the impact will be on the fiscal, monetary and regulatory landscape in the U.K., including among other things, the U.K.’s tax system, the conduct of cross-border business and export and import tariffs. There is also uncertainty in relation to how, when and to what extent these developments will impact on the economy in the U.K., the future growth of its various industries, on levels of investor activity and confidence, on market performance and on exchange rates.

While we did not experience any significant adverse impacts on our business in 2021, it is not possible to predict fully the future effects of the exit of the U.K. from the European Union. Any of these risks, taken singularly or in the aggregate could have an adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.

Our business may be affected by litigation and government investigations.

We may from time to time receive inquiries and subpoenas and other types of information requests from government authorities and others and we may become subject to claims and other actions related to our business activities. While the ultimate outcome of investigations, inquiries, information requests and legal proceedings is difficult to predict, defense of litigation claims can be expensive, time-consuming and distracting, and adverse resolutions or settlements of those matters may result in, among other things, modification of our business practices, costs and significant payments, any of which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects.

Security breaches, computer malware, computer hacking attacks and other security incidents could harm our business, reputation, brand and operating results.

Security incidents have become more prevalent across industries and may occur on our systems. Security incidents may be caused by, or result in but are not limited to, security breaches, computer malware or malicious software, computer hacking, unauthorized access to confidential information, denial of service attacks, security system control failures in our own systems or from vendors we use, email phishing, software vulnerabilities, social engineering, sabotage and drive-by downloads. Such security incidents, whether intentional or otherwise, may result from actions of hackers, criminals, nation states, vendors, employees or customers.

We rely on our internal technology systems for development, marketing, operational, support and sales activities. A disruption or failure of these systems or in those of our external service providers, in the event of a major storm, earthquake, fire, telecommunications failure, cyber-attack, terrorist attack or other catastrophic event could cause system interruptions, reputational harm, delays in our product development and loss of critical data and could materially and adversely affect our ability to operate our business.

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We may experience disruptions, data loss, outages and other performance problems on our systems due to service attacks, unauthorized access or other security related incidents. Any security breach or loss of system control caused by hacking, which involves efforts to gain unauthorized access to information or systems, or to cause intentional malfunctions or loss, modification or corruption of data, software, hardware or other computer equipment and the inadvertent transmission of computer malware could harm our business.

In addition, our software stores and transmits customers’ confidential business information in our facilities and on our equipment, networks, corporate systems and in the cloud. Security incidents could expose us to litigation, remediation costs, increased costs for security measures, loss of revenue, damage to our reputation and potential liability. Our customer data and corporate systems and security measures may be compromised due to the actions of outside parties, employee error, malfeasance, capacity constraints, a combination of these or otherwise and, as a result, an unauthorized party may obtain access to our data or our customers’ data. Outside parties may attempt to fraudulently induce our employees to disclose sensitive information in order to gain access to our customers’ data or our information. We must continuously examine and modify our security controls and business policies to address new threats, the use of new devices and technologies, and these efforts may be costly or distracting.

Because the techniques used to obtain unauthorized access, disable or degrade service, or sabotage systems change frequently or may be designed to remain dormant until a predetermined event and often are not recognized until launched against a target, we may be unable to anticipate these techniques or implement sufficient control measures to defend against these techniques. Though it is difficult to determine what harm may directly result from any specific incident or breach, any failure to maintain confidentiality, availability, integrity, performance and reliability of our systems and infrastructure may harm our reputation and our ability to retain existing customers and attract new customers. If an actual or perceived security incident occurs, the market perception of the effectiveness of our security controls could be harmed, our brand and reputation could be damaged, we could lose customers, and we could suffer financial exposure due to such events or in connection with remediation efforts, investigation costs, regulatory fines and changed security control, system architecture and system protection measures.

Risks Related to our Intellectual Property

Any failure by us to protect our proprietary technologies or maintain the right to use certain technologies may negatively affect our ability to compete.

To compete effectively, we must protect our intellectual property. We rely on a combination of patents, trademarks, copyrights, trade secret laws, confidentiality procedures and licensing arrangements to protect our intellectual property rights. We hold numerous patents and have a number of pending patent applications. However, our portfolio of patents evolves as new patents are issued and older patents expire and the expiration of patents could have a negative effect on our ability to prevent competitors from duplicating certain or all of our products.

We might not succeed in obtaining patents from any of our pending applications. Even if we are awarded patents, they may not provide any meaningful protection or commercial advantage to us, as they may not be of sufficient scope or strength or may not be issued in all countries where our products can be sold. In addition, our competitors may be able to design around our patents.

There can be no assurance that an issued patent will remain valid and enforceable in a court of law through the entire patent term. Should the validity of a patent be challenged, the legal process associated with defending the patent can be costly and time consuming. Issued patents can be subject to oppositions, interferences and other third-party challenges that can result in the revocation of the patent or limit patent claims such that patent coverage lacks sufficient breadth to protect subject matter that is commercially relevant. Competitors may be able to circumvent our patents. In cases where market ramp of our products may encounter delays it is possible that some patents or licensed patents covering the product has expired or will be in force for only a short period of time following such market ramp. We cannot predict with any certainty if any third party patent rights, or other proprietary rights, will be deemed infringed by the use of our technology. Nor can we predict with certainty which, if any, of these rights will or may be asserted against us by third parties.

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To protect our product technology, documentation and other proprietary information, we enter into confidentiality agreements with our employees, customers, consultants and strategic partners. We require our employees to acknowledge their obligation to maintain confidentiality with respect to our products. Despite these efforts, we cannot guarantee that these parties will maintain the confidentiality of our proprietary information in the course of future employment or working with other business partners. We develop, manufacture and sell our products in Asia and other countries that may not protect our intellectual property rights to the same extent as the laws of the U.K. and the U.S. This makes piracy of our technology and products more likely. Steps we take to protect our proprietary information may not be adequate to prevent theft of our technology. We may not be able to prevent our competitors from independently developing technologies and products that are similar to or better than ours.

Vigorous protection and pursuit of intellectual property rights or positions characterize the semiconductor industry. This often results in expensive and lengthy litigation. We, and our customers or suppliers, may be accused of infringing patents or other intellectual property rights owned by third parties in the future. An adverse result in any litigation against us or a customer or supplier could force us to pay substantial damages, stop manufacturing, using and selling the infringing products, spend significant resources to develop non-infringing technology, discontinue using certain processes or obtain licenses to use the infringing technology. In addition, we may not be able to develop non-infringing technology or find appropriate licenses on reasonable terms or at all.

Patent disputes in the semiconductor industry between industry participants are often settled through cross-licensing arrangements. Our portfolio of patents may not have the breadth to enable us to settle an alleged patent infringement claim through a cross-licensing arrangement, especially for patent disputes brought by non-practicing entities (patent holders who do not manufacture products but only seek to monetize patent rights) that cannot be settled through cross-licensing and cannot be avoided through cross-licensing with industry practitioners. We may therefore be more exposed to third-party claims than some of our larger competitors and customers.

Customers may make claims against us in connection with infringement claims made against them that are alleged to relate to our products or components included in our products, even where we obtain the components from a supplier. In such cases, we may incur monetary losses due to cost of defense, settlement or damage award and non-monetary losses as a result of diverting valuable internal resources to litigation support. To the extent that claims against us or our customers relate to third-party intellectual property integrated into our products, there is no assurance that we will be fully or even partially indemnified by our suppliers against any losses.

Furthermore, we may initiate claims or litigation against third parties for infringing our proprietary rights or to establish the validity of our proprietary rights. This could consume significant resources and divert the efforts of our technical and management personnel, regardless of the litigation’s outcome.

Risks Related to our Financial Control Environment

We incur significant costs as a result of operating as a public company.

We incur significant legal, accounting and other expenses that we did not incur as a private company. For example, we are subject to the information and reporting requirements of the Securities Act, the Exchange Act and other federal securities laws, rules and regulations related thereto, including compliance with the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002 (the “Sarbanes-Oxley Act”), and the Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act. In addition, the listing requirements of any national securities exchange or other exchange and other applicable securities rules and regulations impose various requirements on public companies. Our management and other personnel are required to devote a substantial amount of time to these compliance initiatives. Moreover, these rules and regulations significantly increase our legal and financial compliance costs and make some activities more time-consuming and costly. Among other things, we are required to:

maintain and evaluate a system of internal controls over financial reporting in compliance with the requirements of Section 404(a) of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act and the related rules and regulations of the SEC and the Public Company Accounting Oversight Board;
maintain policies relating to disclosure controls and procedures;

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prepare and distribute periodic reports in compliance with our obligations under federal securities laws;
institute a more comprehensive compliance function, including with respect to corporate governance; and
involve, to a greater degree, our outside legal counsel and accountants in the above activities.

The costs of preparing and filing annual and quarterly reports, proxy statements and other information with the SEC and furnishing audited reports to stockholders is expensive and much greater than that of a privately-held company, and compliance with these rules and regulations involve a material increase in regulatory, legal and accounting expenses and the attention of our board of directors and management. In addition, being a public company makes it more expensive for us to obtain director and officer liability insurance. In the future, we may be required to accept reduced coverage or incur substantially higher costs to obtain this coverage. These factors could also make it more difficult for us to attract and retain qualified executives and members of our board of directors.

We identified a material weakness in connection with our internal controls over financial reporting. Although we are taking steps to remediate this material weakness, there is no assurance we will be successful in doing so in a timely manner, or at all, and we may identify other material weaknesses.

Under the supervision and with the participation of our management, including our Chief Executive Officer and Chief Financial Officer, we conducted an assessment of the effectiveness of our internal control over financial reporting as of December 31, 2021. A material weakness is a deficiency, or a combination of deficiencies, in internal control over financial reporting, such that there is a reasonable possibility that a material misstatement of our annual or interim financial statements will not be prevented or detected on a timely basis. In Management's Report on Internal Control over Financial Reporting included in our Original Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2021, our management previously concluded that we maintained effective internal control over financial reporting as of December 31, 2021. Our management subsequently concluded that a material weakness existed and our internal control over financial reporting was not effective as of December 31, 2021.

In August 2022, the Company determined that it made an error in the presentation and accounting of its consolidated statement of cash flows in the Company’s annual and interim consolidated financial statements during 2021 and 2022. The effect of this error was to overstate net cash used in operating activities and effect of exchange rate changes on cash for each reported period. For the year ended December 31, 2021, the effect of this error was to overstate net cash used in operating activities and effect of exchange rate changes on cash by $808 thousand, respectively. The error and the required restatement had no effect on the Company’s cash flow from investing activities, financing activities, net change in cash or cash and cash equivalents as of the reporting date and had no impact on the Company’s consolidated balance sheet, the Company’s consolidated statements of operations and comprehensive loss and the Company’s condensed consolidated statements of stockholders’ equity.

As a result, we determined that there was a material error in the cash flow statement that required a restatement of the financial statements for the fiscal year ended December 31, 2021 and to our Form 10-Qs for the periods ended September 30, 2021 and March 31, 2022 (including comparative information for March 31, 2021) to restate the previously issued financial statements, with comparatives for June 30, 2021 restated in our Form 10-Q for the period ended June 30, 2022 to restate the previously issued financial statements. This was due to inadequate design and implementation of controls to evaluate and monitor the presentation and compliance with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America related to the cash flow statement. Accordingly, management has determined that this control deficiency constitutes a material weakness and, as a result, management has concluded that, as of December 31, 2021, our internal control over financial reporting was not effective based on the criteria in Internal Control Integrated Framework (2013) issued by the COSO.

Effective internal control over financial reporting is necessary for us to provide reliable financial reporting. We continue to evaluate steps to remediate the material weakness. The remediation plan includes enhancement of our existing monitoring and review controls over the preparation of financial statements, including designing and documenting additional procedures, reconciliations and analysis to evaluate and monitor presentation of the cash flow statement. These remediation measures may be time consuming and costly and there is no assurance that these initiatives will ultimately have the intended effects.

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If we are not able to comply with the requirements of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act or if we are unable to maintain effective internal control over financial reporting, we may not be able to produce timely and accurate financial statements or guarantee that information required to be disclosed by us in the reports that we file with the SEC, is recorded, processed, summarized, and reported within the time periods specified in SEC rules and forms. Any failure of our internal control over financial reporting or disclosure controls and procedures could cause our investors to lose confidence in our publicly reported information, cause the market price of our stock to decline, expose us to sanctions or investigations by the SEC or other regulatory authorities, or impact our results of operations.

We can give no assurance that the measures we are taking and plan to take in the future will remediate the material

weakness identified or that any additional material weaknesses or restatements of financial results will not arise in the future due to a failure to implement and maintain adequate internal control over financial reporting or circumvention of these controls. In addition, even if we are successful in strengthening our controls and procedures, in the future those

controls and procedures may not be adequate to prevent or identify irregularities or errors or to facilitate the fair

presentation of our financial statements.

If our estimates or judgments relating to our critical accounting policies are based on assumptions that change or prove to be incorrect, our results of operations could fall below the expectations of investors, resulting in a decline in the market price of our common stock.

The preparation of financial statements in conformity with accounting practices generally accepted in the United States of America (“US GAAP”) requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the amounts reported in our financial statements. Significant assumptions and estimates used in preparing our financial statements include those related to assets, liabilities, revenue, expenses and related disclosures. We base our estimates on historical experience and on various other assumptions that we believe to be reasonable under the circumstances, the results of which form the basis for making judgments about the carrying values of assets, liabilities, equity, revenue and expenses that are not readily apparent from other sources. Our results of operations may be adversely affected if our assumptions change or if actual circumstances differ from those in our assumptions, which could cause our results of operations to fall below the expectations of investors, resulting in a decline in the market price of our common stock.

Changes in accounting rules and regulations, or interpretations thereof, could result in unfavorable accounting charges or require us to change our compensation policies.

Accounting methods and policies for companies such as ours, including policies governing revenue recognition, leases, research and development and related expenses, and accounting for stock-based compensation, are subject to review, interpretation and guidance from our auditors and relevant accounting authorities, including the SEC. Changes to accounting methods or policies, or interpretations thereof, may require us to reclassify, restate or otherwise change or revise our historical financial statements, including those contained in this Report.

Risks Related to Our Common Stock

We are an “emerging growth company” and we cannot be certain if the reduced reporting requirements applicable to emerging growth companies will make our common stock less attractive to investors.

We are an “emerging growth company” as defined in the JOBS Act. For as long as we continue to be an emerging growth company, we may take advantage of exemptions from various reporting requirements that are applicable to other public companies that are not emerging growth companies, including (1) not being required to comply with the auditor attestation requirements of Section 404 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act, (2) reduced disclosure obligations regarding executive compensation in this Report and our periodic reports and proxy statements, and (3) exemptions from the requirements of holding a nonbinding advisory vote on executive compensation and stockholder approval of any golden parachute payments not previously approved. In addition, as an emerging growth company, we are only required to provide two years of audited financial statements and two years of selected financial data in this Report. We could be an emerging growth company until the fifth anniversary of the first sale of our common stock pursuant to a registration statement occurs, although circumstances could cause us to lose that status earlier, including if the market value of our common stock held by non-affiliates exceeds $700.0 million as of June 30 of any year or if we have total annual gross

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revenue of $1.07 billion or more during any fiscal year, in which cases we would no longer be an emerging growth company as of the following December 31, or if we issue more than $1.0 billion in nonconvertible debt during any three-year period, in which case we would no longer be an emerging growth company immediately. Even after we no longer qualify as an emerging growth company, we may still qualify as a “smaller reporting company” which would allow us to take advantage of many of the same exemptions from disclosure requirements including not being required to comply with the auditor attestation requirements of Section 404 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act and reduced disclosure obligations regarding executive compensation in this Report and our periodic reports and proxy statements. We cannot predict if investors will find our common stock less attractive because we may rely on these exemptions. If some investors find our common stock less attractive as a result, there may be a less active trading market for our common stock and our share price may be more volatile.

Under the JOBS Act, emerging growth companies can also delay adopting new or revised accounting standards until such time as those standards apply to private companies. We have elected to use the extended transition period under the JOBS Act until the earlier of the date we (i) are no longer an emerging growth company or (ii) affirmatively and irrevocably opt out of the extended transition period provided in the JOBS Act. As a result, our financial statements may not be comparable to companies that comply with new or revised accounting pronouncements as of public company effective dates.

We are a smaller reporting company, and we cannot be certain if the reduced disclosure requirements applicable to smaller reporting companies will make our common stock less attractive to investors.

We are currently a “smaller reporting company”, meaning that we are not an investment company, an asset-backed issuer, or a majority-owned subsidiary of a parent company that is not a smaller reporting company and we have a public float of less than $250 million and annual revenues of less than $100 million during our most recently completed fiscal year. In the event that we are still considered a smaller reporting company at such time as we cease being an “emerging growth company,” we will be required to provide additional disclosure in our SEC filings. However, similar to emerging growth companies, smaller reporting companies are able to provide simplified executive compensation disclosures in their filings; are exempt from the provisions of Section 404(b) of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act requiring that independent registered public accounting firms provide an attestation report on the effectiveness of internal control over financial reporting; and have certain other decreased disclosure obligations in their SEC filings, including, among other things, only being required to provide two years of audited financial statements in annual reports and in a registration statement under the Exchange Act on Form 10. Decreased disclosures in our SEC filings due to our status as a smaller reporting company may make it harder for investors to analyze our results of operations and financial prospects.

An active trading market for our common stock may not develop or be sustained which may make it difficult for investors to sell shares of our common stock and may make it difficult for us to raise capital.

Although our common stock is quoted on the OTCQB marketplace, trading in our common stock has been sporadic and an active market for our common stock has not yet developed. Because of the lack of an active trading market, shares of our common stock trade infrequently and in low volumes, meaning that the number of persons interested in purchasing our common stock at or near bid prices at any given time may be relatively small or non-existent and the trading price of our common stock may be extremely volatile. Investors may find it difficult to obtain accurate quotations as to the market value of our common stock or to sell their shares at or near bid prices or at all. In addition, if we fail to meet the criteria set forth in SEC regulations, various requirements would be imposed by law on broker-dealers who sell our securities to persons other than established customers and accredited investors. Consequently, such regulations may deter broker-dealers from recommending or selling our common stock, which may further affect the liquidity of our common stock. No assurance can be given that an active trading market for our common stock will develop or be sustained. The lack of an active market for our common stock may make it difficult for investors to sell shares of our common stock and may make it difficult for us to raise capital.

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We may not ever be able to satisfy the listing requirements for our common stock to be listed on a national securities exchange, which may cause the trading of our common stock to suffer, cause the trading market for our common stock to be less liquid and subject our common stock price to increased volatility.

We may not ever be able to satisfy the listing requirements for our common stock to be listed on a national securities exchange, which is often a more widely-traded and liquid market. Some, but not all, of the factors which may delay or prevent the listing of our common stock on a more widely-traded and liquid market include the following: our stockholders’ equity may be insufficient; the market value of our outstanding securities may be too low; our net income from operations may be too low; our common stock may not be sufficiently widely held; we may not be able to secure market makers for our common stock; and we may fail to meet the rules and requirements mandated by the several exchanges and markets to have our common stock listed. Should we fail to satisfy the initial listing standards of the national exchanges, or our common stock is otherwise rejected for listing, the trading price of our common stock could suffer, the trading market for our common stock may be less liquid and our common stock price may be subject to increased volatility.

The designation of our common stock as a “penny stock” would limit the liquidity of our common stock.

Our common stock may be deemed a “penny stock” (as that term is defined under Rule 3a51-1 of the Exchange Act) in any market that may develop in the future. Generally, “penny stock” is common stock that is not listed on a securities exchange and trades for less than $5.00 a share. Prices often are not available to buyers and sellers and the market may be very limited. Penny stocks in start-up companies are among the riskiest equity investments. Broker-dealers who sell penny stocks must provide purchasers of these stocks with a standardized risk-disclosure document prepared by the SEC. The document provides information about penny stocks and the nature and level of risks involved in investing in the penny stock market. A broker must also provide purchasers with bid and offer quotations and information regarding broker and salesperson compensation and make a written determination that the penny stock is a suitable investment for the purchaser and obtain the purchaser’s written agreement to the purchase. Many brokers and investors choose not to participate in penny stock transactions, which may result in further liquidity constraints and declines in the trading price of our common stock. Because of the penny stock rules, there may be less trading activity in penny stocks in any market that develops for our common stock in the future and stockholders are likely to have difficulty selling their shares of our common stock.

We do not anticipate paying dividends on our common stock, and investors may lose the entire amount of their investment.

Cash dividends have never been declared or paid on our common stock, and we do not anticipate such a declaration or payment for the foreseeable future. Any future determination about the payment of dividends will be made at the discretion of our board of directors and will depend upon our earnings, if any, capital requirements, operating and financial conditions, contractual restrictions, including any loan or debt financing agreements, and on such other factors as our board of directors deems relevant. In addition, we may enter into agreements in the future that could contain restrictions on payments of cash dividends. We expect to use future earnings, if any, to fund business growth. Therefore, stockholders will not receive any funds absent a sale of their shares of our common stock. If we do not pay dividends, our common stock may be less valuable because a return on your investment will only occur if our stock price appreciates. We cannot assure stockholders of a positive return on their investment when they sell their shares of our common stock, nor can we assure that stockholders will not lose the entire amount of their investment.

FINRA sales practice requirements may limit a stockholder’s ability to buy and sell our stock.

The Financial Industry Regulatory Authority (“FINRA”) has adopted rules requiring that, in recommending an investment to a customer, a broker-dealer must have reasonable grounds for believing that the investment is suitable for that customer. Prior to recommending speculative or low-priced securities to their non-institutional customers, broker-dealers must make reasonable efforts to obtain information about the customer’s financial status, tax status, investment objectives and other information. Under interpretations of these rules, FINRA has indicated its belief that there is a high probability that speculative or low-priced securities will not be suitable for at least some customers. If these FINRA requirements are applicable to us or our securities, they may make it more difficult for broker-dealers to recommend that

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at least some of their customers buy our common stock, which may limit the ability of our stockholders to buy and sell our common stock and could have an adverse effect on the market for and price of our common stock.

Substantial future sales of shares of our common stock could cause the market price of our common stock to decline.

A substantial portion of outstanding shares of our common stock has been registered for resale by the holders thereof. The resale, or expected or potential resale, of a substantial number of shares of our common stock in the public market could adversely affect the market price for our common stock and make it more difficult for you to sell shares of our common stock at times and prices that you feel are appropriate. Furthermore, we expect that selling stockholders holding shares that have been registered by us for resale will continue to offer such shares of our common stock for a significant period of time, the precise duration of which cannot be predicted. Accordingly, the adverse market and price pressures resulting from these sales may continue for an extended period of time and continued negative pressure on the market price of our common stock could have a material adverse effect on our ability to raise additional equity capital.

If securities or industry analysts do not publish research or reports about our business, or if they issue an adverse or misleading opinion regarding our stock, our stock price and trading volume could decline.

The trading market for our common stock will be influenced by the research and reports that industry or securities analysts publish about us or our business. We do not currently have and may never obtain research coverage by securities and industry analysts. In addition, because we did not become a reporting company by conducting an underwritten initial public offering of our common stock, and because we will not be listed on a national securities exchange, security analysts of brokerage firms may not provide coverage of our company. We cannot assure you that brokerage firms will provide analyst coverage of our company in the future, or continue such coverage if started. In addition, investment banks may be less likely to agree to underwrite secondary offerings on our behalf than they might if we became a public reporting company by means of an underwritten initial public offering, because they may be less familiar with our company as a result of more limited coverage by analysts and the media, which could harm our ability to raise additional funding in the future. The failure to receive research coverage or support in the market for shares of our common stock will have an adverse effect on our ability to develop a liquid market for our common stock, which will negatively impact the trading price of our common stock.

In the event we obtain securities or industry analyst coverage, if any of the analysts who cover us issue an adverse or misleading opinion regarding us, or if our operating results fail to meet the expectations of analysts, our stock price would likely decline. If one or more of these analysts cease coverage of us or fail to publish reports on us regularly, we could lose visibility in the financial markets, which in turn could cause our stock price or trading volume to decline.

Our principal stockholders and management have substantial control over us and could delay or prevent a change in corporate control.

Our executive officers and directors, together with holders of 5% or more of our outstanding common stock and their respective affiliates, beneficially own 65.9% of our common stock. As a result, these stockholders, acting together have the ability to significantly impact the outcome of matters submitted to our stockholders for approval, including the election of directors and any merger, consolidation, or sale of all or substantially all of our assets. In addition, these stockholders, acting together, have the ability to significantly impact the management and affairs of our company. The interests of these stockholders may not be the same as or may even conflict with your interests. The concentration of ownership might decrease the market price of our common stock by:

delaying, deferring, or preventing a change in control of the company, which could deprive our stockholders of an opportunity to receive a premium for their common stock as part of a sale of our company or our assets and might affect the prevailing market price of our common stock;
impeding a merger, consolidation, takeover, or other business combination involving us; or
discouraging a potential acquirer from making a tender offer or otherwise attempting to obtain control of the company.

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The significant concentration of stock ownership may also adversely affect the trading price of our common stock due to investors’ perception that conflicts of interest may exist or arise.

Provisions in our certificate of incorporation and bylaws and Delaware law might discourage, delay or prevent a change of control of our company or changes in our management and, therefore, depress the trading price of our common stock.

Our certificate of incorporation and bylaws contain provisions that could depress the trading price of our common stock by acting to discourage, delay or prevent a change in control of our company or changes in our management that the stockholders of our company may deem advantageous. These provisions:

establish a classified board of directors so that not all members of our board are elected at one time;
provide that directors may only be removed “for cause”;
authorize the issuance of “blank check” preferred stock that our board of directors could issue from time to time to increase the number of outstanding shares and discourage a takeover attempt;
eliminate the ability of our stockholders to call special meetings of stockholders;
prohibit stockholder action by written consent, which has the effect of requiring all stockholder actions to be taken at a meeting of stockholders;
provide that the board of directors is expressly authorized to make, alter or repeal our bylaws;
establish advance notice requirements for nominations for election to our board of directors or for proposing matters that can be acted upon by stockholders at stockholder meetings; and
require supermajority approvals to remove the protective provisions in our certificate of incorporation and bylaws listed above or to amend our bylaws.

Such provisions could impede any merger, consolidation, takeover or other business combination involving the company or discourage a potential acquirer from making a tender offer or otherwise attempting to obtain control of the company.

Our amended and restated certificate of incorporation designates the Court of Chancery of the State of Delaware as the sole and exclusive forum for certain types of actions and proceedings that may be initiated by our stockholders, which could limit the ability of our stockholders to obtain a favorable judicial forum for disputes with us or our directors, officers or other employees.

Our amended and restated certificate of incorporation requires that, unless we consent in writing to the selection of an alternative forum:

any derivative action or proceeding brought on our behalf;
any action asserting a claim of breach of any fiduciary duty owed by any current or former director, officer, other employee or stockholder of ours to our company or our stockholders;
any action asserting a claim arising pursuant to any provision of the Delaware General Corporate Law (the “DGCL”), our certificate of incorporation or bylaws or as to which the DGCL confers jurisdiction on the Court of Chancery of the State of Delaware; or
any action asserting a claim governed by the internal affairs doctrine;

the Court of Chancery of the State of Delaware will, to the fullest extent permitted by law, be the exclusive forum or if the Court of Chancery of the State of Delaware does not have subject matter jurisdiction thereof, the federal district court of the State of Delaware.

Furthermore, Section 22 of the Securities Act creates concurrent jurisdiction for federal and state courts over all such Securities Act actions. Accordingly, both state and federal courts have jurisdiction to entertain such claims. To prevent having to litigate claims in multiple jurisdictions and the threat of inconsistent or contrary rulings by different courts, among other considerations, our amended and restated certificate of incorporation provides that the federal district courts of the United States of America are the exclusive forum for resolving any complaint asserting a cause of action arising under the Securities Act.

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The exclusive forum provisions described above do not apply to claims arising under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, or the Exchange Act.

While the Delaware courts have determined that such choice of forum provisions are facially valid, a stockholder may nevertheless seek to bring such a claim arising under the Securities Act against us, our directors, officers, or other employees in a venue other than in the federal district courts of the United States of America. In such instance, we would expect to vigorously assert the validity and enforceability of the exclusive forum provisions of our certificate of incorporation. Although we believe this provision benefits us by providing increased consistency in the application of Delaware law in the types of lawsuits to which it applies, this provision may limit or discourage a stockholder’s ability to bring a claim in a judicial forum that it finds favorable for disputes with us or our directors, officers or other employees, which may discourage such lawsuits against us and our directors, officers and other employees. Alternatively, if a court were to find the choice of forum provision contained in the amended and restated certificate of incorporation to be inapplicable or unenforceable in an action, we may incur additional costs associated with resolving such action in other jurisdictions, which could adversely affect our business and financial condition.

We note that there is uncertainty as to whether a court would enforce the provision and that investors cannot waive compliance with the federal securities laws and the rules and regulations thereunder. Although we believe this provision will benefit us by providing increased consistency in the application of Delaware law in the types of lawsuits to which it applies, the provision may have the effect of discouraging lawsuits against our directors and officers.

Because we became a reporting company under the Exchange Act by means other than a traditional underwritten initial public offering, we may not be able to attract the attention of research analysts at major brokerage firms.

Because we did not become a reporting company by conducting an underwritten initial public offering of our common stock, and because we will not be listed on a national securities exchange, security analysts of brokerage firms may not provide coverage of our company. In addition, investment banks may be less likely to agree to underwrite secondary offerings on our behalf than they might if we became a public reporting company by means of an underwritten initial public offering, because they may be less familiar with our company as a result of more limited coverage by analysts and the media, and because we became public at an early stage in our development. The failure to receive research coverage or support in the market for shares of our common stock will have an adverse effect on our ability to develop a liquid market for our common stock.

Item 1B. Unresolved Staff Comments

Not Applicable.

Item 2. Properties

Our headquarters are located in Manchester, England, where we lease approximately 10,000 square feet of commercial space for research and development, engineering, testing and corporate offices pursuant to a lease that expires in 2022. We also have a leased office in Hsinchu City Taiwan where we lease approximately 1,000 square feet of office space pursuant to a lease which expires in 2022. We use the CPI facility in Sedgefield, England for virtually all of our fabrication activities. In addition, we lease two offices at CPI pursuant to leases which expire in 2023 and are renewed on an annual basis and two offices at NetPark, Sedgefield pursuant to leases which expire in 2024. We also maintain access to additional office space on a temporary or as-needed basis. We believe that our facilities are suitable to meet our current needs and that suitable space will be available on acceptable terms as may be required to support the expected growth in our business.

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Item 3. Legal Proceedings

From time to time, we may become involved in litigation or other legal proceedings. We are not currently a party to any litigation or legal proceedings that, in the opinion of our management, are likely to have a material adverse effect on our business. Regardless of outcome, litigation can have an adverse impact on us because of defense and settlement costs, diversion of management resources and other factors.

Item 4. Mine Safety Disclosures

Not Applicable.

PART II

Item 5. Market For Registrant’s Common Equity, Related Stockholder Matters And Issuer Purchases Of Equity Securities

Market Information

Quotations on our common stock on the OTC Market Group’s OTCQB® Market quotation system (“OTCQB”) commenced under the ticker symbol “SMTK” in February 2022. There was no trading of our common stock on the OTCQB or any other over-the-counter market prior to February 2022.

Holders of Record

As of March 14, 2022, there were 26,566,809 shares of our common stock outstanding which were held by 139 stockholders of record as reported by our transfer agent. This number does not include beneficial owners whose shares are held in street name. The actual number of holders of our Common Stock is greater than this number of record holders and includes stockholders who are beneficial owners, but whose shares are held in street name by brokers or held by other nominees.

Dividend Policy

Cash dividends have never been declared or paid on our common stock, and we do not anticipate such a declaration or payment for the foreseeable future. Any future determination about the payment of dividends will be made at the discretion of our board of directors and will depend upon our earnings, if any, capital requirements, operating and financial conditions, contractual restrictions, including any loan or debt financing agreements, and on such other factors as our board of directors deems relevant. In addition, we may enter into agreements in the future that could contain restrictions on payments of cash dividends. We expect to use future earnings, if any, to fund business growth.

Recent Sales of Unregistered Securities

On November 29, 2021, the Company issued 12,500 shares of common stock at a value of $2.00 per share to a consultant. Such issuance was exempt from registration under 4(a)(2) of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended and Regulation D promulgated thereunder.

Item 6.[Reserved]

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Item 7. Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations

Our Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations (MD&A) is provided in addition to the accompanying consolidated financial statements and notes to assist readers in understanding our results of operations, financial condition, and cash flows. The following discussion and analysis of our financial condition and results of operations should be read together with our consolidated financial statements and the related notes and other financial information included in this Report. Some of the information contained in this discussion and analysis or set forth elsewhere in this Report, including information with respect to our plans and strategy for our business, includes forward-looking statements that involve risks and uncertainties as described under the heading “Cautionary Note on Forward-Looking Statements” above. You should review the disclosure under the heading “Item1A. Risk Factors” in this Report for a discussion of important factors that could cause actual results to differ materially from the results described in or implied by the forward-looking statement.

Overview

We are seeking to reshape the world of electronics with a revolutionary semiconductor platform that enables a new generation of displays, sensors and logic. SmartKem’s patented TRUFLEX® inks are solution deposited at a low temperature, on low-cost substrates to make organic thin-film transistor (OTFT) circuits. Our semiconductor platform can be used in a number of applications including mini-LED displays, AMOLED displays, fingerprint sensors and logic circuits. We develop our materials at our research and development facility in Manchester, UK, and at our semiconductor manufacturing process at the Centre of Process Innovation (CPI) in Sedgefield, UK. We have an extensive IP portfolio including approximately 120 issued patents.

Since our inception in 2009, we have devoted substantial resources to the research and development of materials and production processes for the manufacture of organic thin film transistors and the enhancement of our intellectual property.

Our loss before income taxes was $17.1 million and $23.1 million for the year ended December 31, 2021 and 2020, respectively. As of December 31, 2021, our accumulated deficit was $75.1 million. Substantially all our operating losses have resulted from expenses incurred in connection with research and development activities and from general and administrative costs associated with our operations.

Recent Developments

Share Exchange (“the Exchange”)

On February 23, 2021, we entered into a Share Exchange Agreement (the “Exchange Agreement”) with SmartKem Limited (“SmartKem”), a private company incorporated under the Laws of England and Wales, and the former shareholders of SmartKem. Pursuant to the Exchange Agreement, all of the equity interests in SmartKem, except certain “deferred shares” which had no economic or voting rights (“Deferred Shares”) and which were purchased by us for an aggregate purchase price of $1.40, were exchanged for shares of our common stock, par value $0.0001 per share (“common stock”), and SmartKem became our wholly owned subsidiary (the “Exchange”). The Exchange was consummated on February 23, 2021.

As a result of the Exchange, we legally acquired the business of SmartKem and are continuing the existing business operations of SmartKem as a public reporting company under the name SmartKem, Inc. The Exchange was treated as a recapitalization and reverse acquisition for us for financial reporting purposes, and SmartKem is considered the acquirer for accounting purposes.

As a result of the Exchange and the change in our business and operations, the historical financial results of SmartKem, the accounting acquirer, prior to the Exchange are considered our historical financial results.

At the closing of the Exchange (the “Closing”), each SmartKem ordinary share issued and outstanding immediately prior to the Closing (other than the Deferred Shares) was exchanged for 0.0111907 of a share of our common stock and

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each SmartKem A ordinary share issued and outstanding immediate prior to the Closing was exchanged for 0.0676668 of a share of our common stock, with the maximum number of shares of our common stock issuable to the former holders of SmartKem’s ordinary shares and A ordinary shares equal to 12,725,000. This includes enterprise management incentive options to purchase 124,497,910 SmartKem ordinary shares (the “SmartKem EMI Options”) issued and outstanding immediately prior to the Closing that were accelerated and exercised by the holders thereof for a like number of ordinary shares and exchanged for shares of our common stock pursuant to the Exchange. Immediately prior to the Closing, an aggregate of 2,500,000 shares of our common stock owned by our stockholders prior to the Exchange were forfeited and cancelled (the “Stock Forfeiture”).

In addition, pursuant to the Exchange Agreement and upon Closing, the unexercised non tax- advantaged options (the “SmartKem Unapproved Options”) to purchase SmartKem ordinary shares issued and outstanding were waived and released by the holders in consideration for new options to purchase such number of shares of our common stock equal to the number of shares of SmartKem ordinary shares subject to the relevant SmartKem Unapproved Option immediately prior to the Exchange, multiplied by the applicable Exchange conversion ratio (which was equal to 0.0111907), with any fraction rounded to the nearest whole number. The exercise price per share of each such new option is equal to the then-current exercise price of the relevant SmartKem Unapproved Option divided by the applicable Exchange conversion ratio (which was equal to 0.0111907) (rounded to the nearest one-tenth of one cent), except for new options issued to a U.S. person which have an exercise price of $2.00 per share. The new options were issued pursuant to our 2021 Equity Incentive Plan (the “2021 Plan”). The new options replacing the SmartKem Unapproved Options cover an aggregate of 402,586 shares of our common stock, with options covering 336,557 shares of our common stock having an exercise price of $0.001 per share and the options covering the remaining 66,029 shares of our common stock having an exercise price of $2.00 per share.

Private Placement (“Offering”)

Following the Closing, on February 23, 2021, we sold 10,162,000 shares of our common stock and pre- funded warrants to purchase up to 2,168,000 shares of our common stock for aggregate gross proceeds of $24.6 million pursuant to a private placement offering of our common stock (or pre-funded warrants in lieu thereof) at a purchase price of $2.00 per share or $1.99 per pre-funded warrant, as applicable. Pursuant to the offering, we offered to certain purchasers whose purchase of shares of our common stock in the offering would otherwise have resulted in the purchaser, together with its affiliates and certain related parties, beneficially owning more than 4.99% (or, at the election of the purchaser, 9.99%) of our outstanding common stock immediately following the closing of the offering, the opportunity to purchase, if any such purchaser so chose, pre-funded warrants in lieu of shares of our common stock that would otherwise have resulted in such purchaser’s beneficial ownership exceeding 4.99% (or, at the election of the purchaser, 9.99%) of our outstanding common stock, at a purchase price of $1.99 per pre-funded warrant. Each pre-funded warrant is exercisable for one share of our common stock at an exercise price of $0.01 per share.

Octopus Share Purchase

On January 27, 2022, we sold an aggregate of 1,000,000 shares of our common stock at a purchase price of $2.00 per share to Octopus Titan VCT plc and Octopus Investments Nominees Limited in accordance with the Letter Agreement, dated as of February 23, 2021, between the Company and Octopus Titan VCT plc and certain related parties.

Key Factors Affecting Our Performance

There are a number of industry factors that affect our business which include, among others:

Overall Demand for Products and Applications using Organic thin film transistors

Our potential for growth depends significantly on the adoption of organic thin film transistor (OTFT) materials in the display and sensor markets and our ability to capture a significant share of any market that does develop. We expect that demand for our technology will also fluctuate based on various market cycles, continuously evolving industry supply chains, trade and tariff terms, as well as evolving competitive dynamics in each of the respective markets. These uncertainties make demand difficult to forecast for us and our customers.

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Intense and Constantly Evolving Competitive Environment

Competition in the industries we serve is intense. Many companies have made significant investments in product development and production equipment. To remain competitive, market participants must continuously increase product performance, reduce costs and develop improved ways to serve their customers. To address these competitive pressures, we have invested in research and development activities to support new product development, improve ease of use, lower product costs and deliver higher levels of performance to differentiate our products in the market.

Governmental Trade and Regulatory Conditions

Our potential for growth depends on a balanced and stable trade, political, economic and regulatory environment among the countries where we do business. Changes in trade policy such as the imposition of tariffs or export bans to specific customers or countries could reduce or limit demand for our products in certain markets.

Technological Innovation and Advancement

Innovations and advancements in organic materials continue to expand the potential commercial application for our products. However, new technologies or standards could emerge, or improvements could be made in existing technologies that could reduce or limit the demand for our products in certain markets.

Intellectual Property Issues

We rely on patented and non-patented proprietary information relating to product development, manufacturing capabilities and other core competencies of our business. Protection of intellectual property is critical. Therefore, steps such as additional patent applications, confidentiality and non-disclosure agreements, as well as other security measures are important. While we believe we have a strong patent portfolio and there is no actual or, to our knowledge, threatened litigation against us for patent-related matters, litigation or threatened litigation is a common method to effectively enforce or protect intellectual property rights. Such action may be initiated by or against us and would require significant management time and expenses.

Components of Results of Operations

Revenue

Our revenue currently consists of revenue from the sale of demonstration products.

Cost of Revenues. Cost of revenues consists of (1) direct product costs incurred for the raw materials and manufacturing services for our products, (2) fixed product costs primarily relating to production, manufacturing and personnel and (3) depreciation consisting primarily of expenses related to our fixed assets. We expect our cost of goods sold attributable to direct product costs to increase proportionately with increases in revenue, and our cost of goods sold attributable to fixed product costs to remain substantially flat or moderately increase in connection with increases in revenue.

Other Operating Income. Our other income includes government grants received for qualifying research and development projects, and research and development tax credits related to the United Kingdom’s Research and Development Expenditure Credit scheme, which is a government tax incentive designed to reward innovative companies for investing in research and development. The income associated with these items are recognized in the period which the research and development expenses occurred. Additionally, during the year ended December 31, 2021, the Company received government grants under the United Kingdom’s Coronavirus Job Retention Scheme.

Operating Expenses

Research and Development. Research and development expenses consist primarily of compensation and related costs for personnel, including share-based compensation and employee benefits as well as costs associated with design,

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fabrication and testing of OTFT devices. In addition, research and development expenses include depreciation expenses related to our fixed assets. We expense research and development expenses as incurred. As we continue to invest in developing our technology for new products, we expect research and development expenses to remain flat or moderately increase in absolute dollars but to decline as a percentage of revenue. We do not believe that it is possible at this time to accurately project total program-specific expenses through commercialization. There are numerous factors associated with the successful commercialization of our technology many of which cannot be determined with accuracy at this time based on our stage of development. Additionally, future commercial and other factors beyond our control will impact our development programs and plans.

Selling, General and Administrative. Selling, general and administrative expenses consist primarily of allocated compensation and related costs for personnel, including share-based compensation, employee benefits and travel. In addition, general and administrative expenses include third-party consulting, legal, audit, accounting services, allocations of overhead costs, such as rent, facilities and information technology. We expect general and administrative expenses to increase in absolute dollars in future periods due to additional legal, accounting, insurance, investor relations and other costs associated with being a public company, as well as other costs associated with growing our business.

Non-Operating Income (Expense)

Financial Income/(Expense), Net aggregates the following amounts:

Interest Expense. We issued convertible loans to a number of investors in 2018 and 2019. These loans were all converted to equity in 2020. The loans contained a beneficial conversion feature that resulted in a loan discount upon issue which was recognized as interest expense over the lifetime of the loan. Upon conversion of the loans the remaining unamortized loan discount was recognized as interest expense in 2020.

Interest Income. Interest income is interest on our cash deposits.

Other Income; Other income is the gain or loss on remeasurement of lease liabilities

Change in Fair Value of Derivative Assets. The convertible loans contained variable conversion price scenarios that were evaluated and determined to be derivatives that were bifurcated from the loan notes and accounted for separately. The resulting derivative is accounted for at estimated market value with changes in the market value recorded in income.

Loss on Conversion of Convertible Notes Payable. In January 2020 when the convertible loan notes were converted to A ordinary shares, a loss on conversion was recognized. The loss represents the difference between the fair value of the A ordinary shares issued and the carrying value of the convertible loan notes plus accrued interest and the fair market value of the embedded derivative on the date of conversion.

Income Tax Expense. Income tax expense consists primarily of income taxes in jurisdictions in which we conduct business. We did not incur any income tax expense in 2021 or 2020.

Foreign Currency Translation. Foreign currency translation reflect adjustments made due to currency fluctuations.

Results of Operations

The following tables set forth our results of operations for the periods presented. The information in the tables below should be read in conjunction with our consolidated financial statements and related notes included in Part II, Item 8 of

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this Form 10-K/A. The period-to-period comparisons of financial results in the tables below are not necessarily indicative of future results.

The following information has been adjusted to reflect the restatement of our financial statements as described under the heading Restatement of Previously Issued Financial Statements in Note 1 Business and Liquidity in the Notes to Financial Statements of this Amended Annual Report.

Comparison of Loss from Operations for the years ended December 31, 2021 and 2020

Our results of operations for the years ended December 31, 2021 and 2020 are as follows:

Year Ended December 31, 

Increase (Decrease)

 

US$000

    

2021

    

2020

    

Amount

    

Percentage

 

Revenue

 

$

18

$

94

 

$

(76)

 

(81)

%

Cost of revenue

 

8

 

55

 

(47)

 

(85)

%

Gross Profit

 

10

 

39

 

(29)

 

(74)

%

Other operating income

 

1,285

 

1,437

 

(152)

 

(11)

%

Operating Expenses

 

  

 

  

 

  

 

  

Research and development

 

8,199

 

4,319

 

3,880

 

90

%

Selling, general and administrative

 

8,069

 

1,707

 

6,362

 

373

%

Transaction expenses

 

1,329

 

 

1,329

 

%

Total operating expenses

 

17,597

 

6,026

 

11,571

 

192

%

Loss from operations

 

$

(16,302)

$

(4,550)

 

$

(11,752)

 

258

%

Revenue and Cost of Revenue

Our revenue currently consists of revenue from the sale of demonstration products. The year on year change in revenue and gross profit reflects the one off nature of these sales, consistent with our current stage of commercialization.

Other Operating Income

Year Ended December 31, 

Increase (Decrease)

% of total

% of total

    

2021

    

2020

    

Amount

    

Percentage

2021

2020

Research & development tax credit

$

1,095

$

922

$

173

19

%

85%

64%

Research & development grants

181

498

(317)

(64)

%

14%

35%

Other grants

 

9

 

17

 

(8)

(47)

%

1%

1%

Total other operating income

$

1,285

$

1,437

$

(152)

(11)

%

100%

100%

Our Other Operating Income includes government grants received for qualifying research and development projects, and research and development tax credits related to the United Kingdom’s Research and Development Expenditure Credit (RDEC) scheme, which is a government tax incentive designed to reward innovative companies for investing in research and development. The increase in RDEC Tax Credit reflects higher eligible expenditure in 2021 compared to 2020. In 2021, R&D grant funding was secured for the “SmartLight” project that successfully demonstrated OTFT mini-LED backlights for displays with improved light uniformity and lower defects.

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Operating Expenses

Year Ended December 31, 

Increase (Decrease)

% of total

% of total

    

2021

    

2020

    

Amount

    

Percentage

2021

2020

Research and development

$

8,199

$

4,319

$

3,880

90

%

47%

72%

Selling, general and administrative

8,069

1,707

6,362

373

%

46%

28%

Transaction expenses

 

1,329

 

 

1,329

%

7%

0%

Total operating expenses

$

17,597

$

6,026

$

11,571

192

%

100%

100%

Operating expenses increased by $11.6 million, or 192%, to $17.6 million for the year ended December 31, 2021, compared to $6.0 million for the comparable period of 2020.

The increase in Research and development expense was primarily due to stock-based compensation expense of $3.0 million in 2021 and from expenditure to further develop core materials and fabricate demonstrator devices to promote our technology to prospective customers and partners.

The increase in Selling, general and administrative expense was mainly due to $3.2 million stock-based compensation expense in 2021, from adding to our sales teams in the US and Asia and the strengthening of our finance team to prepare the Company’s US public company financial reporting, as well as from the additional legal, accounting and insurance expenses of operating as a public company.

Transaction costs of $1.3 million associated with the Exchange were incurred in the year ended December 31, 2021.

We expect to continue to incur significant expenses and operating losses for the foreseeable future. We expect our expenses will increase in connection with our ongoing activities as we:

continue to develop our core material, EDA tools and foundry services;
add sales and field applications personnel and incur related expenses to support operational growth;
increase activity directly related to promoting our products to increase revenues; and
add financial accounting and management systems to position us for growth and incur additional legal and accounting expense as we operate as a public company.

Non-Operating (Expenses)/Income and Net Loss

Year Ended December 31, 

Increase (Decrease)

 

2021

    

2020

    

Amount

    

Percentage

 

Loss from operations

$

(16,302)

$

(4,550)

$

(11,752)

258

%

Non-operating (Expense)/Income

 

  

 

  

 

  

 

  

Loss on foreign currency transactions

 

(808)

 

 

(808)

 

%

Other income

1

(1)

(100)

%

Interest expense

(19)

(6,835)

6,816

(100)

%

Interest income

3

3

%

Change in fair value of derivative asset

(6,282)

6,282

(100)

%

Loss on conversion of convertible notes payable

(5,470)

5,470

 

(100)

%

Total non-operating expense

 

(824)

 

(18,583)

 

17,759

 

(96)

%

Loss before income taxes

 

(17,126)

 

(23,133)

 

6,007

 

(26)

%

Income tax expense

 

 

 

 

Net Loss

$

(17,126)

$

(23,133)

$

6,007

(26)

%

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The increase loss on foreign currency transactions in was due to fluctuations in U.S. dollar/U.K. pound value arising from transactions denominated in foreign currencies and the translation of foreign currency denominated balances on intra-group loans that were first advanced in 2021.

In the year ended December 31, 2020, the Company’s convertible loan notes were converted to equity following a qualifying event. $6.8 million of Interest Expense resulted from recognition of unamortized loan discounts, $6.3 million of expense arose from change in the fair value of derivative assets that reflected the change in probability of conversion immediately before the conversion date and a $5.5 million loss on conversion of convertible notes payable arose from the difference between the fair value of the A ordinary shares issued and the carrying value of the convertible loan notes. These expenses plus accrued interest and the fair market value of the embedded derivative on the date were all recorded as non-operating expenses. For information regarding convertible notes and derivative assets, please refer to Notes 7 and 8 to our consolidated financial statements.

The loss before income taxes was $17.1 million for the year ended December 31, 2021, a decrease of $6.0 million, compared to a loss before income taxes of $23.1 million for the year ended December 31, 2020. The decrease in loss was attributable to a reduction in non-operating losses resulting from the accounting recognition of loans converted to equity during 2020, partially offset by higher stock compensation expense, transaction costs from the Exchange in 2021 and operating expenses associated with being a public company.

Liquidity and Capital Resources

To date, we have funded our liquidity and capital requirements primarily with proceeds from the private sale of our equity and debt securities and borrowing against our research and development credits. As of December 31, 2021, our cash and cash equivalents were $12.2 million compared with $764 thousand as of December 31, 2020. On January 27, 2022, we sold an aggregate of 1,000,000 shares of our common stock to existing investors at a price of $2.00 per share for total gross proceeds of $2.0 million. For subsequent events, refer to Note 16 to our Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements included in this Annual Report on Form 10-K/A.

We believe that our cash and cash equivalents will be sufficient to support our expected liquidity and working capital requirements for at least the next twelve months. However, in the event that we enter into contracts involving significant sales of our products, development agreements, license agreements, collaborations, acquisitions or other material transactions, we may require additional working capital to support our increased obligations. To date, we have not recorded significant revenues related to product sales and therefore do not have any present need to fund inventory or accounts receivable.

In the long-term, we will need to obtain additional funds to satisfy our operational needs and to fund our sales and marketing efforts, research and development expenditures, and business development activities. Our future liquidity and working capital requirements will depend on many factors including our ability to generate revenue from product sales, the timing and extent of spending to support our sales and marketing, product development and research and development efforts, our entry into one or more material agreements containing significant performance obligations and our needs for working capital to support our business operations. Until such time, if ever, as we can generate sufficient cash through revenue, we expect to finance our working capital requirements through a combination of equity offerings, debt financings, collaborations, strategic alliances and marketing, distribution or licensing arrangements. We may be unable to raise additional funds or enter into such other agreements or arrangements when needed on favorable terms, or at all.

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The following table shows a summary of our cash flows for the years ended December 31, 2021 and 2020, respectively:

Year Ended December 31, 

Increase (Decrease)

    

2021

2020

Amount

    

Percentage

US$000

As Restated

Net cash used in operating activities

 

$

(9,728)

$

(4,082)

$

(5,646)

138

%

Net cash used by investing activities

 

(341)

 

(118)

(223)

189

%

Net cash provided by financing activities

 

22,204

 

4,592

 

17,612

384

%

Net change in cash before effect of exchange rate changes on cash

 

12,135

 

392

11,743

2,996

%

Effect of exchange rate changes on cash

(673)

(40)

(633)

1,583

%

Cash, beginning of year

 

764

 

412

352

85

%

Cash, end of year

 

$

12,226

$

764

$

11,462

1,500

%

Operating Activities

Net cash used in operating activities was $9.7 million for the year ended December 31, 2021, compared to $4.1 million for the year ended December 31, 2020, an increase of $5.6 million. The increase resulted primarily from a decrease in our net loss of $6.0 million, offset by a decrease of non-cash expense of $11.2 million and an unfavorable movement in operating assets and liabilities of $0.4 million.

Investing Activities

Net cash used in investing activities was $341 thousand for the year ended December 31, 2021, compared to $118 thousand for the year ended December 31, 2020, an increase of $223 thousand. The increase resulted from a higher level of investment in laboratory and capital equipment purchases in 2021 to support our increased research and development activity. In the future, we expect to continue to incur capital expenditures to support our research and development activities and wider business operations.

Financing Activities

Net cash flows provided by financing activities was $22.2 million for the year ended December 31, 2021, compared to $4.6 million for the year ended December 31, 2020, an increase of $17.6 million. The increase was due to the net proceeds of the Offering of $22.2 million, compared to $4.6 million from our 2020 private placement.

In January 2021, the Company entered into a term loan facility for $0.7 million acting as an advance of and secured against certain R&D tax credit amounts due. The facility together with accrued interest of $19 thousand was repaid in full in March 2021.

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Contractual Payment Obligations

Our principal commitments primarily consist of obligations under leases for office space and purchase commitments in the normal course of business for research & development facilities and services, communications infrastructure and administrative services. These will be funded from the company’s cash balances and working capital.

Payments Due by Period

US$(000)

2022

2023

2024

Total

Operating lease obligations

$

93

$

22

$

7

$

122

Purchase obligations

837

516

69

1,422

$

930

$

538

$

76

$

1,544

Recently Issued Accounting Pronouncements

For recently issued accounting announcements, see “Recently Issued Accounting Pronouncements” in Note 2, Significant Accounting Policies and Recent Accounting Pronouncements, in the Notes to our Consolidated Financial Statements included in this Amended Annual Report on Form 10-K/A.

Critical Accounting Policies and Estimates

Our consolidated financial statements and the related notes thereto included in this Report are prepared in accordance with US GAAP. The preparation of consolidated financial statements also requires us to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets, liabilities, revenue, costs and expenses, and related disclosures. These estimates are developed based on historical experience and various other assumptions that we believe to be reasonable under the circumstances. Actual results could differ significantly from the estimates made by management. To the extent that there are differences between our estimates and actual results, our future financial statement presentation, financial condition, results of operation, and cash flows will be affected.

We believe that the accounting policies discussed below are critical to understanding our historical and future performance, as these policies relate to the more significant areas involving management’s judgments and estimates. Critical accounting policies and estimates are those that we consider the most important to the portrayal of our financial condition and results of operations because they require our most difficult, subjective or complex judgments, often as a result of the need to make estimates about the effect of the matters that are inherently uncertain.

Accounting for Stock-Based Compensation:

We account for stock-based compensation in accordance with ASC 718, Compensation-Stock Compensation. ASC 718 requires companies to estimate the fair value of equity-based payment awards on the date of grant using a Black-Scholes option-pricing model. We recognize compensation expenses for the value of our equity awards granted based on the straight-line method over the requisite service period of each of the awards.

We estimate the fair value of each stock option award using the Black-Scholes option-pricing model, which uses as inputs the fair value of our common stock and assumptions we make for the volatility of our common stock, the expected term of our stock-based awards, the risk-free interest rate for a period that approximates the expected term of our stock-based awards, and our expected dividend yield. Prior to February 2022, the Company’s common stock was not traded on an over the counter or national securities exchange and consequently the Company developed estimates for the inputs to the option-pricing model.

We estimated the fair value of the shares of common stock by referencing arms-length transactions inclusive of the common shares underlying which occurred on or near the valuation date(s) or when these were not available, we determined the fair value of common share using methodologies, approaches and assumptions consistent with the AICPA Practice Guide, Valuation of Privately Held Company Equity Securities Issued as Compensation. We estimate our expected volatility based on the historical volatility of a set of our publicly traded peer companies. The risk-free

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interest rate assumption is based on observed interest rates for the appropriate term of the Company’s options on a grant date. The expected option term assumption for options granted in 2021 under the 2021 Plan is the contractual term, as the service period is implied under the practical expedient since the Company does not have sufficient exercise history to estimate expected term of its historical option awards.

The assumptions used in determining the fair value of stock-based awards represent our best estimates, but the estimates involve inherent uncertainties and the application of our judgment. As a result, if factors change and we use significantly different assumptions or estimates, our stock-based compensation expense could be materially different in the future.

Valuation allowance of deferred tax assets:

Income taxes are recorded in accordance with ASC 740, Income Taxes (“ASC 740”), which provides for deferred taxes using an asset and liability approach. The Company recognizes deferred tax assets and liabilities for the expected future tax consequences of events that have been included in the consolidated financial statements or tax returns. Deferred tax assets and liabilities are determined based on the difference between the financial statement and tax basis of assets and liabilities using enacted tax rates in effect for the year in which the differences are expected to reverse. Valuation allowances are provided, if based upon the weight of available evidence, it is more likely than not that some or all of the deferred tax assets will not be realized.

We considered the positive and negative evidence bearing upon its ability to realize the deferred tax assets. In addition to the Company’s history of cumulative losses, the Company cannot be certain that future taxable income will be sufficient to realize its deferred tax assets. Accordingly, a full valuation allowance has been provided against its net deferred tax assets at both December 31, 2021 and 2020. Should the Company change its determination, based on the evidence available as to the amount of its deferred tax assets that can be realized, the valuation allowance will be adjusted with a corresponding impact to the provision for income taxes in the period in which such determination is made and which may be material.

Convertible Notes

SmartKem accounts for its convertible notes in accordance with ASC 470-20, Debt with Conversion and Other Options (“ASC 470-20”), which requires the liability and equity components of convertible debt instruments to be separately accounted for in a manner that reflects the issuer’s nonconvertible debt borrowing rate.

Debt discount created by the bifurcation of embedded feature in the convertible notes are reflected as a reduction to the related debt liability. The discount is amortized to interest expense over the term of the debt using the effective-interest method.

Derivative Asset for Embedded Conversion Features

SmartKem does not use derivative instruments to hedge exposures to cash flow, market, or foreign currency risks.

SmartKem evaluates convertible notes to determine if those contracts or embedded components of those contracts qualify as derivatives to be accounted for separately. In circumstances where the embedded conversion option in a convertible instrument is required to be bifurcated and there are also other embedded derivative instruments in the convertible instrument that are required to be bifurcated, the bifurcated derivative instruments are accounted for as a single, compound derivative instrument. The result of this accounting treatment is that the fair value of the embedded derivative is recorded as either an asset or a liability and marked-to-market each balance sheet date, with the change in fair value recorded in the statements of operations as other income or expense. Upon conversion or exercise of a derivative instrument, the instrument is marked to fair value at the conversion date and then that fair value is reclassified to equity.

The fair value of the embedded conversion features are estimated using a Monte Carlo simulation model, in which possible outcomes and their values are simulated repeatedly and randomly. Under the Monte Carlo method SmartKem

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estimated the fair value of the convertible notes conversion feature at the time of issuance and subsequent remeasurement dates, utilizing the with-and without method, where the value of the derivative feature is the difference in values between a note simulated with the embedded conversion feature and the value of the same note simulated without the embedded conversion feature. Estimating fair values of embedded conversion features requires the development of significant and subjective estimates that may, and are likely to, change over the duration of the instrument with related changes in internal and external market factors.

For more information regarding our accounting policies, see Note 2, Summary of Significant Accounting Policies and Recent Accounting Pronouncements, in our Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements in this Amended Annual Report on Form 10-K/A.

Going Concern Evaluation

Our consolidated financial statements included elsewhere herein have been presented on a going concern basis, which contemplates the realization of assets and the satisfaction of liabilities in the normal course of business. We have financed our activities principally from the issuance of ordinary shares and debt securities. We have experienced recurring losses since inception and expect to incur additional losses in the future in connection with research and development activities.

In the year ended December 31, 2021, we raised net proceeds of $22.2 million through the Offering and at December 31, 2021 we had $12.2 million of cash and cash equivalents after funding net cash used in operations for the year ended December 31, 2021 of $9.7 million.

We expect that our available cash balances will provide sufficient liquidity to fund our current obligations and projected working capital and capital expenditure requirements for at least the next 12 months from the issuance date of these consolidated financial statements through the first quarter of 2023. Our management consider it is appropriate to continue to adopt the going concern basis in preparing the consolidated financial statements.

Our future viability is dependent on our ability to raise additional capital to satisfy our operational needs and to fund our sales and marketing efforts, research and development expenditures, and business development activities. Until such time, if ever, as we can generate sufficient cash through revenue, we expect to finance our working capital requirements through a combination of equity offerings, debt financings, collaborations, strategic alliances and marketing, distribution or licensing arrangements. We may be unable to raise additional funds or enter into such other agreements or arrangements when needed on favorable terms, or at all.

Constant Currency

Changes in our financial results include the impact of changes in foreign currency exchange rates. For the year ended December 31, 2021 and 2020, we did not include the impact of constant currency within this Annual Report on Form 10-K/A as foreign exchange did not have a significant impact on our reported USD amounts for these periods.

JOBS Act Accounting Election

We are an emerging growth company, as defined in the Jumpstart Our Business Startups Act, or the JOBS Act. The JOBS Act provides that an emerging growth company can take advantage of an extended transition period for complying with new or revised accounting standards. This provision allows an emerging growth company to either early adopt or delay the adoption of some accounting standards until those standards would otherwise apply to private companies. We have elected to use the extended transition period under the JOBS Act until the earlier of the date we (i) are no longer an emerging growth company or (ii) affirmatively and irrevocably opt out of the extended transition period provided in the JOBS Act. As a result, our consolidated financial statements may not be comparable to companies that comply with new or revised accounting pronouncements as of public company effective dates.

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Item 7A. Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures About Market Risk.

We are a smaller reporting company as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act; therefore, pursuant to Item 301(c) of Regulation S-K, we are not required to provide the information required by this Item.

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Item 8. Financial Statements and Supplementary Data

SmartKem, Inc.

Index to Consolidated Financial Statements

Page

Report of Independent Registered Public Accounting Firm (BDO LLP: London, United Kingdom: PCAOB ID # 1295)

48

Consolidated Balance Sheets as of December 31, 2021 and 2020

49

Consolidated Statements of Operations and Comprehensive Loss for the years ended December 31, 2021 and 2020

50

Consolidated Statements of Stockholders' Equity for the years ended December 31, 2021 and 2020

51

Consolidated Statements of Cash Flows for the years ended December 31, 2021 and 2020 (as restated)

52

Notes to the Consolidated Financial Statements (as restated)

53

47

Table of Contents

Report of Independent Registered Public Accounting Firm

Shareholders and Board of Directors

SmartKem, Inc.

Manchester, United Kingdom

Opinion on the Consolidated Financial Statements

We have audited the accompanying consolidated balance sheets of SmartKem, Inc. (the “Company”) as of December 31, 2021 and 2020, the related consolidated statements of operations and comprehensive loss, stockholders’ equity, and cash flows for each of the two years in the period ended December 31, 2021, and the related notes (collectively referred to as the “consolidated financial statements”). In our opinion, the consolidated financial statements present fairly, in all material respects, the financial position of the Company at December 31, 2021 and 2020, and the results of its operations and its cash flows for each of the two years in the period ended December 31, 2021, in conformity with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America.

Restatement to Correct Error

As discussed in Note 1 to the accompanying consolidated financial statements, the Company's 2021 consolidated financial statements have been restated to correct an error.

Going Concern Uncertainty

The accompanying consolidated financial statements have been prepared assuming that the Company will continue as a going concern. As discussed in Note 1 to the consolidated financial statements, the Company has suffered recurring losses from operations and has a net capital deficiency that raise substantial doubt about its ability to continue as a going concern. Management’s plans in regard to these matters are also described in Note 1. The consolidated financial statements do not include any adjustments that might result from the outcome of this uncertainty.

Basis for Opinion

These consolidated financial statements are the responsibility of the Company’s management. Our responsibility is to express an opinion on the Company’s consolidated financial statements based on our audits. We are a public accounting firm registered with the Public Company Accounting Oversight Board (United States) (“PCAOB”) and are required to be independent with respect to the Company in accordance with the U.S. federal securities laws and the applicable rules and regulations of the Securities and Exchange Commission and the PCAOB.

We conducted our audits in accordance with the standards of the PCAOB. Those standards require that we plan and perform the audit to obtain reasonable assurance about whether the consolidated financial statements are free of material misstatement, whether due to error or fraud. The Company is not required to have, nor were we engaged to perform, an audit of its internal control over financial reporting. As part of our audits we are required to obtain an understanding of internal control over financial reporting but not for the purpose of expressing an opinion on the effectiveness of the Company’s internal control over financial reporting. Accordingly, we express no such opinion.

Our audits included performing procedures to assess the risks of material misstatement of the consolidated financial statements, whether due to error or fraud, and performing procedures that respond to those risks. Such procedures included examining, on a test basis, evidence regarding the amounts and disclosures in the consolidated financial statements. Our audits also included evaluating the accounting principles used and significant estimates made by management, as well as evaluating the overall presentation of the consolidated financial statements. We believe that our audits provide a reasonable basis for our opinion.

/s/ BDO LLP

BDO LLP

We have served as the Company's auditor since 2020.

Manchester, United Kingdom

March 28, 2022, except for the effects of the restatement disclosed in Note 1, which is dated August 23, 2022

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Table of Contents

SMARTKEM, INC. AND SUBSIDIARIES

Consolidated Balance Sheets

(in thousands, except number of shares and per share data)

December 31, 

    

2021

    

2020

ASSETS

 

  

 

  

Current assets:

 

  

 

  

Cash and cash equivalents

$

12,226

$

764

Accounts receivable

 

 

18

Research and development tax credit receivable

 

1,070

 

982

Prepaid expenses and other current assets

 

802

 

259

Total current assets

 

14,098

 

2,023

Property, plant equipment, net of accumulated depreciation of $1,102 and $908

 

802

 

682

Right-of-use assets, net

 

154

 

236

Other assets

 

6

 

8

Total assets

$

15,060

$

2,949

LIABILITIES AND STOCKHOLDERS' EQUITY

 

  

 

  

Accounts payable and accrued expenses

$

1,423

$

861

Current lease liabilities

 

87

 

217

Total current liabilities

 

1,510

 

1,078

Non-current lease liabilities

 

28

 

20

Total liabilities

 

1,538

 

1,098

Commitments and contingencies (Note 9)

Stockholders’ Equity:

 

  

 

  

Common stock, par value $0.0001 per share, 300,000,000 shares authorized, 25,554,309 and 13,627,887 shares issued and outstanding, at December 31, 2021 and December 31, 2020, respectively*

 

3

 

1

Additional paid-in capital

 

89,954

 

61,276

Accumulated other comprehensive loss

 

(1,363)

 

(1,480)

Accumulated deficit

 

(75,072)

 

(57,946)

Total Stockholders’ equity

 

13,522

 

1,851

Total Liabilities and Stockholders’ Equity

$

15,060

$

2,949

*

Please refer to Note 1

The accompanying notes are an integral part of these consolidated financial statements.

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SMARTKEM, INC. AND SUBSIDIARIES

Consolidated Statements of Operations and Comprehensive Loss

(in thousands, except number of shares and per share data)

Year Ended December 31,

    

2021

    

2020

Revenue

$

18

$

94

Cost of revenue

 

8

 

55

Gross profit

 

10

 

39

Other operating income

 

1,285

 

1,437

Operating Expenses:

 

  

 

  

Research and development

 

8,199

 

4,319

Selling, general and administrative

 

8,069

 

1,707

Transaction expenses

 

1,329

 

Total operating expenses

 

17,597

 

6,026

Loss from operations

 

(16,302)

 

(4,550)

Non-operating (Expense)/Income

 

  

 

  

(Loss) on foreign currency transactions

 

(808)

 

Other income

1

Interest expense

 

(19)

 

(6,835)

Interest income

 

3

 

3

Change in fair value of derivative asset

 

 

(6,282)

Loss on conversion of convertible notes payable

 

 

(5,470)

Total non-operating (expense)

 

(824)

 

(18,583)

Loss before income taxes

 

(17,126)

 

(23,133)

Income tax expense

 

 

Net loss

$

(17,126)

$

(23,133)

Net loss

$

(17,126)

$

(23,133)

Other comprehensive loss:

 

  

 

  

Foreign currency translation

 

117

 

(284)

Total comprehensive loss

$

(17,009)

$

(23,417)

 

  

 

  

Basic & diluted net loss per common share

$

(0.68)

$

(1.80)

Basic & diluted weighted average shares outstanding

25,233,384

12,821,748

The accompanying notes are an integral part of these consolidated financial statements.

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SMARTKEM, INC. AND SUBSIDIARIES

Consolidated Statements of Stockholders’ Equity

(in thousands, except share data)

Accumulated

Additional

Other

Common stock

Paid-in

Comprehensive

Accumulated

Stockholders’

    

Shares

    

Amount

    

Capital

    

Loss

    

Deficit

    

 Equity (Deficit)

Balance at January 1, 2020

 

2,183,885

$

-

$

30,926

$

(1,196)

$

(34,813)

$

(5,083)

Issuance of common stock

 

2,548,877

 

-

 

4,592

 

-

 

-

 

4,592

Conversion of notes and interest

 

8,895,125

 

1

 

25,758

 

-

 

-

 

25,759

Foreign currency translation adjustment

 

-

 

-

 

-

 

(284)

 

-

 

(284)

Net loss

 

-

 

-

 

-

 

-

 

(23,133)

 

(23,133)

Balance at December 31, 2020

13,627,887

1

61,276

(1,480)

(57,946)

1,851

Accumulated

Additional

Other

Common stock

Paid-in

Comprehensive

Accumulated

Stockholders’

    

Shares

    

Amount

    

Capital

    

Loss

    

Deficit

    

 Equity (Deficit)

Balance at January 1, 2021

13,627,887

$

1

$

61,276

$

(1,480)

$

(57,946)

$

1,851

Issuance of common shares due to exercise of stock-options

 

1,424,622

 

1

 

19

 

-

 

-

 

20

Stock-based compensation expense

 

-

 

-

 

6,196

 

-

 

-

 

6,196

Repurchase of common stock

 

(2,307,700)

 

-

 

-

 

-

 

-

 

-

Effect of reverse capitalization

 

2,500,000

 

-

 

-

 

-

 

-

 

-

Issuance of common shares to vendor

 

147,500

 

-

 

280

 

-

 

-

 

280

Issuance of common stock and warrants in private placement

 

10,162,000

 

1

 

24,637

 

-

 

-

 

24,638

Issuance costs related to common stock and warrants in private placement

 

-

 

-

 

(2,454)

 

-

 

-

 

(2,454)

Foreign currency translation adjustment

 

-

 

-

 

-

 

117

 

-

 

117

Net loss

 

-

 

-

 

-

 

-

 

(17,126)

 

(17,126)

Balance at December 31, 2021

25,554,309

3

89,954

(1,363)

(75,072)

13,522

The accompanying notes are an integral part of these consolidated financial statements.

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Table of Contents

SMARTKEM, INC. AND SUBSIDIARIES

Consolidated Statements of Cash Flows

(in thousands)

Year Ended December 31,

2021

    

2020

As Restated

Cash flows from operating activities:

  

 

  

Net loss

$

(17,126)

$

(23,133)

Adjustments to reconcile net loss to net cash used in operating activities:

 

  

 

  

Depreciation

 

209

 

197

Common shares issued to vendor for services

 

263

 

Amortization of right of use asset

 

234

 

176

Stock-based compensation

6,196

Loss on foreign currency transactions

808

Non-cash interest expense

 

 

6,835

Change in fair value of embedded conversion feature